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A N 

/historical account 



O V 

B O M B A y, 





or TH3B 



Printed by W. RitHAHOsONj Strancl, 
For J. ROBSON, BookfcUer, Ncwaond-ftrcct. 


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^ - -- I 

t-SJ il^i-C.-- 


^ H K following narrative was not begun 
with a view to publication ; // hath been 
continued to the beginning of the Icfjl year 4/ 
the defire offome refpediable perfons. Mr. 
Orme*s hiftory^ and that of the decline of the 
Mogul empire by Mr. Dow, together with 
the relations of the mojl credible travellers^ 
have furnijhed fome of the materials ; the 
records of the India Company the remainder.—- 
7'ruth and impartiality have been the writer^ s 
aim — the reader will judge whether he hath 













1. I3» 









64» - 
































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far Cattack r. Cuttack. 
for which r. this, 
y^r Furrat r. Amrnt. 
/^r Pent r. Pont. 

r/ii^ Morabah, Btttchabah, and BobageeNaig, 
for Uguie r. Uguien. 

after ruined place a Comma* 

for Mahi r. Mahe. 

for , //tf^f full Stop and for that r. That. 

ybr have r. had^. 11, y^r is r. was. 

r. their minifler. Loft w^rd r. therefore. 

r. Mangalore. 

dele to. 

r. of which. 
fir Carnac n Camac. 

r. he was. 
/ir Myhic r. Myhie. 

^/r property /Aif/ a Comnra* 

after Owde //ar^ a Comma. 
for had r. hath. 

J V. < 

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A N 




O F 

BOM BAY, &c. 

TH £ ifland of Bombay is the antient 
properly of the Engliih Ead India 
Company; it hath hitherto been, of 
all her fettlements, the moft conducive to 
-the grcatnefs of the nation in Afia ; yet^ 
through the fptendor of atchicvement, great 
acquifition of territory, and immenie harv-eils 
of wealth in Bengal and the Coaft of Coro- 
mandel, it hath been in fbme meafure over- 
looked, and, as if in a corner of the world, 

It receives great importance as well from 
its fituation, fo advantageous not only in 
regard to external trade and the internal in 

A the 


the neighbouring , provinces^ as from the 
docks which are the only ones the Company 
have in India, and without which therefore 
there can be no maritime power in'thofe re* 
gions. Hitherto the expence of maintain- 
ing hath not been defrayed by the produce ; 
byt the prefent fituation of affairs in the 
neighbouring provinces, well improved, may 
place things on a different foot, and that ex- 
pence not only be cleared, but a confiderable 
revenue yielded, and a great influence in the 
weftern part of Indoftan obtained. Some ac- 
count therefore of this fettlement, and of the 
events which have offered this occafion of fo fa- 
vourable a change, may be ufefiil at this time. 

In the midway between Goa and Surat on 
the Malabar Coaft, the land from Baffein to 
Choul bends into a deep bay, in which lie 
the iflands of Salcet» Bombay, Caranjah, 
Hog Ifland, Elephanta, and Canary. Salcet 
is the moft northern, feparated from the con- 
tinent by fo fmall a chaimel that it is called 
a river : on the Eaft the diftance is greater, 
but the channel is fordable. It is about 
twenty miles long and as many broad. Its 
waters are wholefome ; its foil fruitful, na^ 
turally abundant, and capable of great im- 
provement ; 



provem6nt; the produce is moftly rice; it 
was formerly the granary of Goa, Half a 
mile to the South of this lies the ifland of 
Bombay, about eight miles long and twenty 
in circumference. Its diftance from the con- 
tinent is about eight miles, and its fituatioii 
forms the harbour. It is well peopled, not- 
withftanding the water Is bad. Caranjah 
produces rice to the value of 60,000 roupies 
a year ; Elephanta, of about 8,000 ; the 
others are little better than rocks. 

In the year 1661, the Portugueze being 
then mafters of that bay and thofe ifland s, 
t|?ey were given to Charles the Second as part 
of his Queen's dowry. But the people fettled 
there did not eafily yield poffeflioii"; for, 
when a fleet of five fliips, with five hundred 
land forces, was fent by the King of Eng- 
land, ^yith the proper muniments from ths 
court of Lifl^on, entrance was refufed. This 
expedition was commanded by Lord Mall- 
borough, \y ho, on thisrefufal, carried the fleet 
to Swally, which lies to the North of Surat: 
the jealouiy of the inhabitants obliged them 
to retire ; the only place open to them was 

^ A roupie is worth* wheo remitted to Eaglaady from 
^ s; to 2 s. 3 d. 

A t Ange- 


Angediva, an uninhabited iflandtothe fouth- 
ward of Goa. Lord Mallborough left them 
there, and returned fingly to Bombay, where, 
after much altercation, he prevailed to be 
admitted, firft to the town, and afterwards 
to the pofleffion of the whole ifland and the 
bay. But during his abfence the unhealthi- 
nefs of the climate, feconded by intempe- 
rance, had made havock among the unfor- 
tunate perfons who had been carried to An- 
gediva ; three hundred of them had periflied ; 
the few who remained were admitted in the 
year 1664. Their firft care was to make 
the ifland defendable. The Portugueze cor- 
rupted by eafe and luxury had funk in indo- 
lence, and were regardiefs of every thing, 
but what contributed to their pleafure : gar- 
dens adorned their pofleffions, but fortifica- 
tions were totally negledled, Mr, Cook, 
who commanded that diminilhed force, was 
the firft governor; he was immediately un- 
.der the crown ; but this government was not 
of long continuance : for the King finding 
no advantage to himfelf from that pofleffion, 
button the contrary being put to great eX- 
pence in fending out fhips, wifKed to be rid 
of it. The officers and men fent in thole 
. Ihips drove a private trade, which impaired 



that of the Company ; and their licentiouf- 
tiefs often engaged them in hoftilities with 
the natives,' for which the Company was an- 
fwerable tp the powers of that country. Thefe 
real evils, and the advantage to be reaped 
from the poffeffion of that illand and bay, 
made the Company defire it ; they therefore 
requefted, and the King readily granted them : 
from that time they have had the abfolute 

The ifland was at firft governed by de- 
puties from the Englifli fadory at Surat. 
Diflention foon arofe between tlie civil and 
military power, and grew to fuch a height, 
that in the y^ar 1671 all was confufion. 
To put an end to this, and to fortify the 
ifland againft attempts, which he forefaw 
a probability of, from the Dutch, then at 
war with England, Mr. Ajungier, preiident 
of the factory of Surat, being alfo dif- 
gufted by the arrogance of the Mogul go* 
vernor of that town, changed his refi- 
dence and eftabliflied himfelf at Bombay, 
where his prudence quaftii^d the diflen- 
tions, his good management advanced the 
Company's intereft, and his aftivity feciired 
the ifland: infoinuch, that in the fpfing of 

A 3 1672^ 


1672, the Dutch attempthig a furprizc, 
found the fort fo well guarded, and every 
thing in fo good a condition, that they im* 
mediately gave over tho entcrprize. 

From that period, each day ihewing the 
great iniportance of this; fettlement, the refi- 
dence of the governor was fixed there, and 
the feveral faftories on the Coaft of Malabar, 
and in the Perfian Gulph, became dependent 
on that prefidency, 

Notwithftanding the natural inconveniences 
of this ifland in the want of Iprings and 
flreams of frefli water, and the poornefs of 
its natural produce, from the time of the 
poffelliou of the Englifli, its populoufnefs 
became confiderable. Many were invited by 
the freedopi granted tQ all religions, and the 
mjldnefs of the government; (that of the 
EngUfh, even when pulhed to what would 
feem tyranny at home, appearing gentle to 
thofe who had felt Mahoinetan inlblence and 
Portugues^e bigotry) infomuch, that from 
ten thoufand fouls, the utmpft of its inha- 
bitants when in poffeflion of thefe, fhey 
were in the yev 1764 augniented tQ fixty 



The accefs to the harbour and its fafety in 
ill feafons, with its vicinity to the country 
inhabited by the Maharattas, and the conve- 
niency of a pafs over the Gaut ♦ Mountains^ 
through which the inland parts may be fup- 
plied with our nxerchandize, are great ad- 
vantages, the lale of woollen and other Eng- 
li(h goods there, amounting annually to 
fourteen lacks of roupies +• The convenience 
of the harbour hath produced a trade of In- 
dian commodities with that country, almoft 
exclufive ; as alfb a very confiderable one in 
the cotton, with which Bengal is fupplied, 
whereby the cuftoms bring the Company an 
annual profit of three lacks and a half |, The 
proximity of Surat gives an influence in that 
government, which, if rightly exerted, may 
prove of immenie benefit ; as Surat is, next 
to Bombay, the great mart for our ftaple 
commodities. Through thefe advantages the 
trade may fall almoft totally into the bandg 
of the Englifh. 

What is yet of greater confequence, not 
only to the Company but the nation, is th« 

♦ Gaut or Gatte means paflage. 
t 140,000 1. at 2s. per roupic. 
t 3S>o^>^ I* a*^ *• *c common exchange is i s. 3 d. ' 

4 ^ maritime 


maritime power which arifes from this pof- 
feffion. Docks ve conftryfted there fuffi- 
clent not only for repairing, but building of 
Ihips. To thefe it is eafy to bring excellent 
timber * from the continent, p^irticylarlj from 
Baflein; a number of artificers are fettled 
there, fo that every repair and bqilding may 
be done as perfedly ^s m England, This 
convenience is not to be found in any other 
part of that, or the Coromandel Coaft, nor 
even in Bengal ; and to this refburce may 
in a great meafure be attributed the fuccjsfs 
of England in that region during the laft 
war. But the great expence attending this 
fcttlement hath hitherto counterbalanced thefe 
advantages; the profits arifing fronx the terri- 
tory, and the great trade carried on, not being 
equal to the amount of that e:s{pence. This hath 
made fome further advantage in thefe parts 
receii'ary, and thi3 neceflky hath been moft 
ftrongly felt fince the year 1 768, when there 
were great additions made to the fortifications,, 
and the piilitaryeftablifliment was augmented; . 
a wife meafure ! fo pegeflai^ that it is to be 

♦ Th^ Teke tree, called by Fryer th^ Indian oak, grows 
in all thofe jrarts. It is better from its durability in water 
than our oak. Ships buiic of that wood, and ufed in the 
^oputry iiade^ l^ft twenty qr thirty years, aud longer. 

* wondered 


wondered that no inconvenience arofe during 
the long tiipe it remained neglected. 

By the great fums then expended, and the 
Jafting increafe of that eftablifhment, the de^ 
feft before-mentioned became grievous, and 
moftly when it was necefiary to furnifh in- 
veftments for Europe and China, The only 
reiiiedy was the acquifition of a territory fuf- 
ficient by its revenues to defray the expence 
of the eftablifhment. The ifland of Salcet, 
Baflein, and its territory, immediately pre- 
iented themfelves as the proper objects for 
this purpofe, when even an opportunity 
ihould offer to acquire them from the Maha- 
rattas who were then the pofl'trflbrs of them. 
The fituation and nature of Saicet have been 
already defcribed ; its produce is fuch that it 
almoft fuffices for the fupply of Bombay, 
which, v^ith the aid of Caranjah and Bafleiu 
may, however numerous its people, be iecure 
of provifion of every kind, Baflein is neceflary 
to the provifion of timber wanted for the 
Company's docks, which, fhould it fail in 
the hands of an enemy, or a quarrel arife 
with its ppfleflbrs, might become" ufelefs for 
want of materials. The importance of thofe 
objeds, fo much greater than that of the 



fupply of expence, hath fo ftrongly ftruck 
the Direftors, that they have repeatedly and 
urgently enjoined that prefidency to feize 
every opportunity of acquiring thefe poffef- 
fions> and to that principally to direfl: their 
views and operations : but as the pofleffors 
are equally lenfible of thofe advantages, and 
confequently of the value of their pofleflion, 
there was little profpeft of fuccefs, when, in 
the year 1773, the diforders which difturbed 
the government of the Maharatta ftate af- 
forded the occafion fo much wiflied. That 
thefe events may be underftood, it is necef- 
fciry to give fome account of the people among 
whom they happened : a people who have 
hitherto had no regular place in hiftory ; 
mentioned only curforily as freebooters or 
barbarians, although fettled in a regular go- 
vernment, and the moft confiderable nation 
in India 5 whether we regard the extent of 
their territory, their fituation, or their arms. 

The rapidity of fuccefs which fo wonder- 
fully extended the empire of the Mahome- 
tans, attended thofe who invaded India, The 
princes of that immenfe region were in 
general overwhelmed : divided among them- 
lelves they affifted their conquerors; yet 



many of them, whilft they yielded, pre- 
ferved their dominions by paying a tribute^ 
and acknowledging the Ibvereignty of the 
viftors; and others refufing this, by arms 
kept up their independence. They, whofe 
pofleffions lay in the low, plain, and fertile 
part of the country, being lefs able to refifl, 
were in the firft clafs ; but they who dwelt 
among the mountains, hardy and ufed to 
arms, and protefted by the rough nefs of 
f their fituation, were not to be eafily fubdued. 
They not only refifted, but often baffled the 
power of the mightieft emperors : even Ay- 
rengzebe found it neceflary to prefer art to 
force ; and, by being fatisfied with fmall ac- 
knowledgments, prevailed by cunning where 
his arms muft have failed. The kingdom 
of Vifiapour was thus at laft fubdued by 
him ; and the king brought to his court, re- 
mained there maintained by a penfion as one 
(pf his Omrahs ; but a part of that kingdom 
inhabited by a hardy race, who before that 
revolution had thrown off the fubjedion to 
the king, remained unconquered ; and con- 
tinued not only free from the yoke of the 
Moguls, but at laft faw that empire tribu- 
tary to them. 



Thefe tribes extended from the territory 
of Surat to that of Goa along the Tea coaft, 
and backward over the naountains to the city 
of Vifiapour, and are at this day known by 
the name of Maharattas. The hiftory of the 
Hindoos gives them great antiquity, even to 
the moft remote times *. They have pre- 
ierved their original manners and religion ; 
fcrupuloua obfervers of that of Bramah, they 
never feed on any thing which hath had ani- 
mal life; temperate, fpber, indefatigable; al- 
ways in arms ; inured to all hardfliips, capable 
of refifting heat and climate, A numerous 
cavalry mounted on horfes as hardy in their 
nature as their riders, is the ftrength of their 
army: their marches are incredibly long and 
rapid : they avoid general engagements ; re- 
treating with a celerity as fudden as that 
with which they invaded, they mark the 
country they leave with the mifery of plun- 
der and devastation ; they return as foon a5 
the army raifed by the prince, whofe territory 
they invade, hath been difbanded. Thus all 
the horrors of this predatory war are renewed, 
to the total deftruilion of the. wretched in- 
habitants. Hence the difficulty of reaching 

♦ Orzne. Dow. 


OF B O M 6 AY. 13 

them, and th6 detriment arifing from theft 
inroads induce the princes of the invaded 
countries to purchafe their retreat, either by 
a large contribution, or ftipulating to pay an 
annual tribute. Their arms have extended 
this kind of conqueft even to the gates of 
Dehli. Expences in luxury are unknown to 
them; and Continually colle^ing from the 
countries they pafs over, immenfe treafure$ 
are brought to remain in theirs; which, 
whilft the provinces within their reach have 
been ravaged and exhaufted, have continued 
'In undifturbed tranquillity. The policy of 
the original conftitution of their governit^tit 
forbad the extenfion of their territorial do* 
minions. This law, notwithftanding the 
fuccefs attending their arms, and the incite* 
ments of ambition common to conquerors, 
continued long inviofete, their views Icadin 
them no further than the impofition of a tri 
bute they called Chout, one fourth of the 
eftimated clear revenue of the countries they 
fubdued : this, in a courfe of time, became 
general through the greateft part of India# 
Their refources of wealth were fimple,- and 
unembarrafled by territorial arrangements} 
their armies numerous in proportion to their 
immenfe revenues, and their country eafy of 



defence. But by degrees the ambitious and 
interefted views of powerful individuals" 
brought them to depart from this policy, and 
to extend their territorial pofleffions. From 
that time their government no longer retained 
ai confident fyftem of meafures, but became 
a disjointed union of different interefts and 
dependencies, where eacli chief, accommodat* 
Ing the interefls of the ftate to what fuited 
his, a£ted folely for his own purpo{e# 

The revolution by which thefe tribes be- 
came an independent nation *, was owing to 
a bold Raypout of the kingdom of Vifiapour, 
named Seva or Sava +, who had long dwelt 
in the mountains, where he was at the head 
of a bold fet of adventurers* This man 
was defcended from an ancient line of Rajas, 
of the caft of the Bouncelos, a warlike ,and 
aftive race. His grandfather, Vanga Gi, waf 
high in office under Nizam Shaw the lad 
prince of Guzurat ; and by him was Seva*s 
father, Shaw Gi Raja, made commander of 
Jenneah Gur, where Seva was born, as was 
alfo a fecond fon called Samba ; by another 

* Fryer. 

t He is commonly dilled Sera Gi. This additional fyl* 
lable denotes fome rank or honour ; as chief. 



wife he had a third fbn named £kou« Wh^ii 
Nizam Shaw was fubdued by Aurengzebe^ 
Shaw Gi, and bis two younger fons, entered 
into the fervice of the king of Vifiapour, 
where they were raifed to great employ- 
ments ; the father to the command of the 
king^s guard^ Samba to a jaguier of tea 
thoufand hbrle, and twenty thoufand foot, 
with thirty lacks of roupies a year, and 
Ekou to one of two thoufand hprfe and eight 
thoufand foot, with ten lacks of roupies a 
year. Seva would not fubmit to ferve any 
prince, but, gathering a party, maintained 
himfelf and them by inroads upon the plain 
country; fometimes againft the fubjefts of 
the Mogul, at others againfl thofe of Vifia» 
pour* Nor could he ever be brought by the 
iaftances of bi& father and his brothers to 
frhange this courle of life, which diibbedience 
occafioned fo heavy a refcntment from bis 
father, that he excluded him from his fuc- 
ceflion. The king of Vifiapour, upon fome 
fufpiciohs of machinations againfl him, put 
to death Shaw Gi Rajah ; revenge of this 
murder furnifhed Seva an excufe for pulhing 
on his devaflations. The king fcnt a ftrong 
army againfl him, under the command of 
Abdul Cawn ; Seva, finding it much fuperior 
' to 


to any he could raife, whilfl: it was yet at it 
great diftance, pretended that he was defirous 
of yielding obedience, and requefted his ad- 
vancing with a fmall party to a choultry 
which ftood between the two armies, that 
he might there kifs his feet, and pray him to 
folicit his pardon from the king. Abdul too 
eafily believed him, and advancing with his 
fon, and an inconliderable retinue, came to 
the place appointed. Seva waited there for 
him, accompanied by few ; but he had placed a 
ftrong party in ambufh,'who lay totally con- 
cealed. He, feemingly unarmed, advancing 
proftrated himfelf at Abdufs feet, and with 
tears requefted hi$ interceffion vrith the king. 
As they entered the choultry Seva faid, 
*^ You, my lord, may execute your plea- 
'' fure on me, and eafe me of my life.'' 
Upon which Abdul, that his fears might va- 
ni(h, and to Ihew him an entire confidence, 
gave his fword and poynard to his page* 
They then begun their conference, when 
Seva drew a ftilletto from his fleeve, aind 
ftabbed him to the heart. Abdul the fon 
flew on Seva and wounded him; but the 
men in ambufh rufhed into the choultry at 
that ^moment, a fcuffle enfued, in which, 
fortunately Abdul efcaped ; and by putting 




on a mean drcfs; and, flying through un- 
frequented ways, reached his camp ; where 
the tragical end of their general was no fooner 
known, than all the troops difperfed, 

Seva, that he might not lofe the fruit of 
his crime, immediately marched to Panala> 
a wealthy and ftrong city, hoping to fur- 
prize it; but the citizens were on their 
guard k He, therefore fearing that a fiege 
would be long^ and give time for another 
army to be fent againft him, which in the 
plain and open country he could not cope 
with, endeavoured a ftratagem. Seven hun^ 
dred of his followers were employed for 
this purpofe. To many of their officers hs 
publicly gave ill-ufagej they loudly com^ 
plained ; and, ieeming from refentment hi? 
bitter enemies, departed to the town, and 
offered their fervice againft him* They were 
well received ; and though at firft the in* 
habitants ufed caution, yet in a very fhort 
time their indolence and luxury drawing 
them to confidence in thefe new friends, they 
left the guard of the walls moftly to them : 
as they had Ibught pleafure more than fecu* 
rity, the ramparts and outworks were pleaf- 
ing walks (hadowed witlj trees ; under the 

B cover 


cover of thefe a detachment of Seva's army 
approached undifcovered, and were the fuc- 
ceeding night admitted by their friends. The 
inhabitants were fbon overpowered, and at 
Seva*s mercy, who confidered them as his 
fubjeiSs, and made their city his retreat ; 
adding to the fortifications, and deftroying 
the trees which had rendered the former ule- 
lefs : from this place he over-ran the adja- 
cent country. The king fbon lent a frelh force 
againft him, under the command of Abdul ; 
this confifted of the troops lately diiperfed, 
and a body of cavalry under Ruftan Gemma^ 
who had a jaguire of thirty lacks of roupies a 
year, for which he maintained ten thoufand 
horfe and thirty thoufand foot ; but Seva 
found means to gain him. Abdul advanced 
gallantly, and with a fmall band of chofen 
friends ruflied to that part where Seva was, 
calling him aloud to an encounter ; but Seva^ 
who depended upon more than valour, de- 
Ipifed the challenge, anfwering, *' The ralh 
*' youth may fall by other hands.'* In the 
mean time Ruftan's horie difbanded, and he, 
with a fmall party, went over to Seva : Alv- 
dul with his few brave friends broke through 
and reached Vifiapour, his whole army dif- 
perfing, left Seva mafter of the field. Ruftan 



fidvlied Seva to take advantage of the prefent 
conilernation, and march diredly to Vifia- 
pour; he followed his counfel, and his bold- 
iiefs would have fucceeded, had not Siddy Jore 
another jaghedar advanced to the relief of 
the city, with a body {0 confiderable, his 
own troops being increafed by the re-aflem- 
blage of the difperfed army, that Seva could 
not fiand before it, but was obliged to re- 
treat to Panala. Siddy encamped near the 
town ; Seva, whofe ftratagems never failed 
him, contrived to efcape, and proceeded to 
Rajapour, the chief city and fortrefs of Siddy, 
where he produced a forged phirmaund *, iealed 
with Siddy's feal, whereby it was fignified, 
that having exchanged this fortrefs for Pa- 
nala, the commander was ordered to deliver it 
up to Seva. Siddy, not able to do any thing 
^ainft Panala, returned to Vifiapour. The 
king fuipe£led him of treachery, yet received 
him with a fair countenance, and made him 
die ufiial preients upon his difmiflion ; but, 
ibon after changing his mind, gave orders 
to BuUul Cawn, whom he made com- 
mander in chief, to overtake and deflroy him. 
Siddy, when Bullul reached him, encountered 
and defeated him. The king then marched 

* A grant 

B 2 in 


in p6rfon againft Him, having by fecret 
means gained feveral of Siddy's army, who, 
not miftrufthig the treafbn, joined battle, in 
which, being forfaken, he was flain. This 
treatment of Siddy Jore incited Siddy Maf- ' 
fure, another potent jaghedar, to vengeance; 
and thus civil difcord completed the mifery 
of this kingdom. In the mean time Seva, 
improving the opportunity, fecured feveral 
fmall places towards the fea coaft. In the 
midft of this confufion the king died without 
ifliie ; upon his death his widow afcended 
the throne ; and, by the weaknefs of her' go- 
vernment, furnifhed Seva further occafion of 
gratifying his revenge, and indulging his 
ambition. The queen had, during the life 
of her hufband, conceived a parental fond- 
nefs for a youth named Sikehdar, whom fhe 
had educated in the doftrine of Ali, the fe£t 
of Mahometans which prevailed in Perfia. 
She now adopted him, and gave him the 
title of king : this could not fail of being 
odious to a people of all others the moft 
fcrupuloufly attached to their religion. ' . Seva 
was highly efteemed for his valour, and 
either from principle or political views, a 
flrift profeffor of the Gentoo religion, had 
acquired a great intereft among the Bramins. 
Improving thefe advantages, he extended his 



influence among the Raypouts. The fcruples 
of many, and the difcontents of more, in- 
creafed his Company of adventurers to an 
army, at the head of which he unexpeftedly 
appeared. The queen was totally unprepared. 
Each advantage improving his force, he re- 
duced into his poffeffion the fortreflcs of Ra- 
japur, Rafejeir, and a great part of the Ma- 
labar Coaft ; in Rafejeir he was faid to have 
found great treafures. His fuccefs was fuch, 
that the queen, in the year 1674, before 
her adopted fon Sikendar could attain his 
majority, was obliged to enter into a treaty 
with him. By the peace which followed, 
he obtained the independent dominion of 
the territory and forts which he had con- 

Unfortunately for the queen and Sikendar 
this diminution was followed by a worfe. 
Pammaich, another of the Raypouts tribu- 
tary to her, trufting to the inacceflible moun- 
tains which furrounded his country, revolted, 
and was fuccefsful ; his faftnefles for a long 
time protefting him. 

Her principal forces being employed in 
the reduftion of this rebel, Aurengzebe feized 

B 3 this 


this opportunity, and marching to the ctty 
of Vifiapour^ conquered that and the fortrefs 
after a three years refiftance ; the unhappy 
Sikendar was taken prifbner. Aurengzebe 
carried him to his court, where he refided as 
one of his omrahs, enjoying a penfion of a 
million of roupies. This revolution hap 
pened in the year 1685. 

From the time Seva found himfelf efta- 
blifhed by this peace, he affumed the title of 
Raja Seva Gi, and a regal ftate, had a pom- 
pous coronation, and applied himfelf clofely 
to make his conqueft a valuable dominion : 
he fortified the principal pafles in the moun- 
tains, and placed therein faithful lieutenants 
and good garrifons. His conquefts extended 
to the territoiy of Surat northward, and 
fouthv/ai'd to that of Goa : the coaft between 
thefe two places became a part of his poflef- 
iion. This enabled him not only to harrafs 
the country round him by continual incur- 
fions, but alfo to Hop all commerce, both 
of the Portugueze and the fubjefts of the 
emperor, by his depredations, iijlbmuch that 
each of thefe powers were happy to receive 
his terms. The pofleflion of fo confiderable 
a tradl of fea coaft inspired him with the idea 


O F B O M B A Y. 33 

of acquiring a maritime power ; his late fuc- 
cefs in his depredations gave probability to 
the fcheme; and his a<Stivity in the purfuit 
of it was fuch, that in a fhort time his force 
was fufficient, not only to refift, but even 
to beat a fleet the Mogul emperor had equip-^ 
ped againft him. Thus both at fea and land 
was his dominion eftablifhed. 

In the year 1674, the prefidency of Bom* 
bay fent an embafly to him to treat concerning 
a trade to be carried on through his country ; 
in which negotiation they afked the fame 
privileges they enjoyed in Perfia and In- 
doftan. This was a favourable time for them, 
as their gallant behaviour, in repulfing an at- 
tack he had made upon Surat, had imprefled 
hini with an idea of their valour : he therc-^ 
fore willingly granted them leave to come tg 
Raree, a ftrong hold in the Gatte ^, where 
he then refided. They proceeded frona Upper 
Choul, a confiderable lea-port in his poffef- 
iion, and, gfter many difficulties, came the 
fourth day to Punchara, a town at the foot 
of the mountain on which Raree ftands ; 
there they pitched their tents, and waited for 

* Gatte (igntfics a pafs^ 

B 4 his 

44 A N A C C O U N T 

his return from a pilgrimage he made to A 
famous pagoda called Purtabgur, preparatory 
to his coronation, which they were fpeftators 
of, and of his fourth marriage. Thefe were 
to him fuch ferious matters, that, till all ther 
teremonies of fafting and purification were 
over (during which he and his family were 
ihut up with the bramins) the ambaffadors 
could not treat of bufinefs with him perfo- 
ftally, but were referred to Moro Pundit his 
Pafliwa, or chancellor, who was to report to 
him the demands .they made : their prefents 
were accepted, and their reception was cour-^ 
teous. Sava Gi owed his fuccefs in a great 
meafure to the influeiice of the bramins ; an 
incident, trifling in itfelf^ fhews his attention 
to keep well with their tribe, during this 
time of his jecefs he was weighed in- gold, 
and i6,(X)o pagodas found to be his weight, 
were, with 100,000 more, diftributed among 
the bramins on the day of his coronation *. 


* The great influence of the bramins over the people 
gave infinite advantage to thofe whofe caufe they cfpoufed. 
They were revered by the higheft. In the hiftory of 
Feru{hta, tranflated by Dow, page 4. vol. I. anno 977. 
*♦ It was then cuftomary among the Rajas, in affairs of 
^^ moment, to afleipble the Double Council, which con- 
** iilled of an equal number of the moft rcfpedlable bra- 

•* mInS 



Except making the Englifh coin current 
tn his dominions, and reftoring wrecks of 
fhips perifhed on his coafts, the whole that 
was demanded was granted, with this com- 
pliment, that with great fatisfa<5lion he em- 
braced our friendfhip, promifing to himfelf 
and his country much happinefs by our fettle- 
ment and trade. 

Seva*8 fuccefs gained him not only terri- 
tory but dependents. Many of the Ray- 
puts, who were tributaries to the Mogul 
and king of Vifiapour, wearied by the ftate 
of war in which they were obliged to live, 
and feeing an advantage in being under his 
prote£tion, as they would for a iinaller tri- 
bute paid to him, not only fave their land 
from deyaftation, but fhare the benefit of his 
manner of maintaining himfelf (the fpoils of 
the neighbouring countries) became hi^ ja- 
ghedar^ or feudatories ; paying him an an- 
nual fum, and ftipulatjng to furiaifli a cet- 
tain number pf trpops whenever occaiioa re- 

^' mlns, who fat on the right of the throne, and of the 
'* nobles, Keitrees, who fat on the left;" but they fcem 
only to be advifers ; for there the Raja, to his rijin, againib 
|he unanimous opinion of fuch a council^ continued a war 
0^afnA the emgetor of Ghizni, 



26 A N A C C O U N T 

quired : and thus was formed that federal 
union which conftitutes the Maharatta ftate^ 
Each of thefe jaghedars maintains a certain 
number of troops, with which, when they are 
not engaged in the common caufe, they make 
incurfions in the neighbouring provinces i 
Sometimes fettling in thofe parts which lie 
moft conveniently for their purpofe ; at others^ 
being iatisfied with the chout or tribute. 
As the princes from whom this tribute is ex-* 
aded'are impatient of this yoke, to whidi 
they yield only through neceflity, the Ma- 
hometans, who look on themfelves as tiie 
conquerors of India, feeling deeply the in* 
dignity of fubmitting to perfbns whom they 
look on merely as freebooters, whenever they 
find an opportuity of evading thefe payments^ 
either from any addition to their ftrength^ 
or embarraffments among the Maharattas, 
with-hold them, which the others, as foon 
as they find it feafible, fail not to demand 
with an armed force ; and thus their troops 
are kept up, and their inclination to plunder 

The dlflentions and war among the fucr 
ceiJbrs. of Aurengzebe left thofe of Seva at li^ 
berty to ftrengthen and eftablifti themfelves : 



the luxury of the prince, and infidelity of 
the chief omrahs, diflblved the government 
of the Mogul empire. In the interval of 
time paffed from the year 1 707 *, in which 
Aurengzcbe died, to the year 171 8, when 
Mahommed Shaw afcended the throne, four 
princes reigned, three of whom were exalted^ 
and then were deprived of life by Ae fadlion 
of the Seids, Abdalla Cawn^ and HalSen 
Cawn. Mahommed, foon after his acceffion , 
rid himfelf of thefe tyrants, and then funk 
in indolence and the pleafures of his haram ; 
the omrahs were at liberty to form and execute 
icheraes of independence In their govern^ 
ixients. The moft confiderable amcHig thefe, 
for extent of province and number of troops, 
were the Nizam ul MuUuck who commanded 
in the Decan, and Aliverdy Cawn who com- 
manded in Bengal. This omrah by his 
arms fobdued the Rajas who were his neigh- 
bours, but tamely permitted the Maharattas 
to range through the interior parts of the 
(Empire. Thefe invafions were fo fuccefsful 
in the kingdom of Malava and the neigh^ 
bouring provinces, that Mahommed, to pur- 
chafe their retreat, coniented to pay them 

^ Dov's HiAory of the Decline of the Mogul Empire. 



the chout, or fourth part of the revenues of 
thofe provinces. Thus did the fucceflbr o£ 
Tamerlane, and great-grandfon of Aureng- 
zebe, become their tributary. 

The whole province of Guzurat, ^aild 
country as far as the Indus, was in this man- 
ner fubjefted to them, and a part of it in 
the adual poffeffion of fome of their chiefs 
or Jaghedars* 

The invafion of the Perfian Nadir, through 
the treachery of the Nizam, having exhaufted 
the provinces, occafioned the tribute to run 
in acrear ; this furniflied the pretence, as the 
weakpefs of the empire did the opportunity, 
of another invafion. An army of eighty 
thoufand horle under the command of Rago 
Gi, in 1 740, invaded theCarnatic; having 
forced the paffes of the mountains, they fur- 
prized and defeated the army of Doaft Aly 
the nabob of the province, who with his fon 
fell in the action. Sipander the fon, and 
Chunda a Saib, the fon-in-law of Doaft Ali, . 
were at variance, and, inftead of uniting to 
repel this invafion, Ihut themlelves up, tht 
fiirft in Vellour, the latter in Tritchinopoli. 
Thus left mafters of the province they ^vaged 



5t, and raifed heavy contributions. Sipanderfet 
on foot a negotiation , which ended in a fU- 
pulation to pay them a hundred lacks of rou- 
pies, and put them in pbflelfion of the territory 
of Tritchinopoly. Sipanderwas acknowledged 
Nabob. They then retired ; but fix months 
after returned to take pofleffion of the land 
yielded to them. Chuhda Saib fuftained a 
three months fiege in Tritchinopoly, and 
then was obliged to fur render at difcretion. 
Madhar Row, who commanded there in the 
year 1741, fold it for a fum of money to 
AbduUa'Cawn, ond of the .Nizam generals. 

In this year they demanded the chout 

from the emperor^ who, unable to pay it, 

gave them a commiflion to gather it in the 

provinces of Bengal, Bahar, and GrifTa, 

where Aliverdi had made himfelf independ" 

ent. The Suu Raja fent an army of 50,000 

•horfe from Sattarab, his capital, to invade 

'Bengal, under the condu<3: of Bofcar Pundit ; 

they ravaged all the dlftrids weft of the 

Ganges. Aliverdi refifted them by arms and 

intrigue: he found means to haive their leader 

aflaffinated ; the army retreated : but the 

• Raja fent two other armies, one by the way 

-of Bahar, commanded by BsUa Row, ^nd 


32 AN A C C U N 1* 

Befides this Ipirit of the Gentoo fyfteiri^ 
Seva was attached to the bramins by. policy.; 
to them he owed his firft fuccefs, and from 
their influence he hoped yet greater advan* 
tages. Of his bounty and munificence, a^ 
well as deference to them, inftances have 
been related on occafion of his coronation 
and marriage ; whilft therefore he retained 
the enfighs and reality of fupreme dignity, 
the power of peace and war, the command 
of armies, the difpofal of employments, .. go* 
vernments, and jaguiers, and the manage* 
ment of the public treafure abfolutely to him* 
felf, he inftituted a council of eight peribiis 
chofcn among the bramins to affift him in 
the adminiftration of the civil governments 
They exercifed the principal offices of the 
ftate under him, they held thefe offices only 
during his pleafure, in procefs of time they 
perpetuated them in that caft. Next in dig- 
nity to the Raja was the Purtenary^ or dele- 
gate, whofe fiat was previoufly neceflary to , 
all adls of flate : but the officer really moft 
powerful was the Paifiiwa, or chancellor * ; in 
him was the executive power of adminiftra* 
tion really lodged; and as the name imports^ 

* Fryer. 

OF B)0 M B AAV 3^ 

hd {Mrefided over t^e cbuncll, and was. th9 
reigttingi indeed fole,' minifter of the Raja* 
The ipirit and . ailivity of Seva Gi was fudi, 
that his miniders >cauld aiTuma little or no 
J>oiwef : but as by him the ijid^ppudcncc of 
his tribe wa$ fettled; .and the . jigh^dars $xed 
in their obtedienqe a«d. payment of Jtheir rent> 
his. fuccei]K)rs, lik/Qj:.other Iudtdn> princes, 
yielding to the foftnfefs of the. climate, and 
the allurements of IvfcxUcy, to epjpy theit 
pleafure left thej^roiQifltratiqu .to^their mi- 
fiifter.. .Similar caufe^. produce, }ik^:effe<9;s 
though in difFerent: x^lima,te^; what hap- 
pened in the firftlio^ of th4 French mon- 
archy : happened here; from tbe iiidolenca 
atid inaSi^vity of th)8'pitince> the abilities and 
real fervice of the.cchief . minifter i,. the necef- 
fity,jto which the. pKinc^ W4S, reduced of be- 
ing tateljy in his hands, the influfeiicc of the 
peribns; whom the miuifter had woii over to 
fpcond him, who in each.ftate were, rulers of 
the people's, confciences, the power by de- 
grees paffed from the. hand of tht^ prince to 
that of the minifter*. The Mayor of the 
Palace^ and the Pai(hway to the admini- 
ftration of government joined command of 
armies ;. fucoefa agdinft forciigu enemies con- 
firmoiithfm in that fiommand ; aii4 the of* 

. C . fice 

34 A^-^ A C C* O' U N T 

fice fixed at fir-ft in their perfon for life only^ 
in time became hereditary in their ftimily, 
whllft the priRGe became a mere cypher; and, 
latisfied With outward eivfigns of royalty, -led 
a life dependent on th^ Will, of him wliohatj 
thus ufurptid his authority. In this ftatJd'the 
Paifliwa Was aflifted b/ tfee reft of theicoun- 
eil, who few by this change the govisniment 
fixed in thei bramilir caft'?' the oflSce became 
hereditary,^ even when' Uhe Paifliwa left an 
infant fori, during whofe minbrity the admi- 
niftration was vefted in a- regent and the reft 
of the council, and exerbifed in the naijie of 
the infant* The comptetion of this change 
was owing> to the Raja Sahoo ; in ther. be- 
ginning 6f whofe reigfi a bramin called 
Wifli-wana' Ballagee, through his great abi- 
lities, feconded by dexterity, had (o far gained 
his prince's favour and confidence, that he 
rofe to be- of the Council^ of Eight, and foou 
to the oflSce'df Paifliwa, The Raja, finding 
every .day more eafe from his management, 
determined formally to in veft him with all 
his authority and power, and even Ibme of 
the enfigns of royalty, 'From that time all 
orders formerly given in the name of the 
Raja ifl'ued in that of the Paifliwa- iblely, 
whom Sahoo ftiled Pundit Praden, chief or 



cleft of the Pundits *. The only referve 
of this tl^oughtlefs prince was the revenue 
of a large diftrift, from wjiofe produce he 
maintained a confiderabi^ body of troops^ 
who were his body guard, and fblely under 
his comoQand. From, that time, ihut up in 
Sattarah, and abandoned totally to his plea- 
iures, he appeared no more to his people, 
who, through the influence of the bramin 
caft, were accuftomed in a Ihort time to this 
alteration, ^yhich in reality had no bad ef- 
fedls to them. The bramins readily afliAed 
in a meafure which fixed the government in 
their caft, and gave a chance to each of their 
families of ieeing the fupreme power fixed 
in it. 

This referve and guard makes it probable 
that by this ceffion Sahoo did not mean to 
diveft himfelf totally ; his intention muft have 
been only the attainment of perfedlly un- 
difturbed tranquillity in the enjoyment of his 
pleafures; but his ahience from bufinefs and 
the view of his people gave his fubftitute 
the opportunity of fully eftablifhing his power 
and influence, infbmuch that the oflSce be- 
came not only permanent in himfelf, but 

* Learned Bramins. 

C z here- 

S6 ANA C C*d U N T 

hereditary in his family : it is now an eftU*^ 
bliflied rule, the fucceffor goes to Sattarah; 
where the Raja refides, and is invefted in his 
bfHce by the delivery of the firpaw *i Such ^ 
revolutiori muft fecmftrang6, but it muft be 
coniidered that the bramiris who compofed the 
council had, as moft orders of men, the in^ 
tereft of their caft principally in view : by this 
abdication they faw the government fixed in 
it, and each might hope that his own family 
would fbme time or 6ther reap the benefit 
of it : and their influence over the people 
being fo great, they eafily brought them to 
fubmit to any government they approved. 

Wifli-ana made ufe of his power in ere* 
ating dependents, and by degrees fo totally 
,obfcured the Rajafhip, that the prince be- 
came a mere image' or reprefentaAve of roy* 
alty. As Sahoo muft ha\^e been very weak 
as well as indolent and luxurious, it is not 
furprizing that, like the French monarchs^ 
he was content with enjoying his pleafures 
within his palace, and in time iunk into 4 
prilbner ; probably his mind as well as his 

• The firpaw is a rich garment "with which the perfoti 
who receives a great employment is invefted in the pre* 
fence of the prince, or of the minifter who carries it, if the 
favoured perfon is then abfent from court. 


lO Fr B^OjM B AY. 37 

body,; dhicvated throitgh fenfual enjoyments, 
willingly atquiefced' in this inglorious torpid 
fkte. His feclufion from the world totally 
bftabliihed the empire of the Paifhwa in the 
mind of his people, his perfbn and his go* 
vernment were forgotten. Upon the death of 
Sahoo, he leaving no children. Raja Ram, 
who was only an adopted foil, probably chofen 
by Wi(h-^ana to ferve his purpoie, was per- 
mitted to fucceed tq this ftate of captive roy« 
alty , and hath ever fince acquiefced, and 
peacefully obeyed the didsites of the Paiihwa 
or bramin council. The genius and circum« 
fiances of the refpedive fucceflbrs of Sahoo 
and Wifh-ana have £) totally fixed the go- 
vernment in the Paifliwa, that every tranfr 
a£tion with foreign powers 13 nwr<ely between 
that officer and them, withoqt any regard to 
the Raja. 

Wi(h-ana*s entierpriiing (pirit did not Icuig 
fuffer him to reft content with the incu^fious 
ufually made by the M aharattas ; he fought 
to regain what the valour of the Portugueze, 
on their £rft invafion of India^ bad wrefled 
froni the inhabitants of that part, of the Ma« 
labar Qozii which Jiies between &urat and 
<joa; in a fhort time, he became mafter of 

C 3 the 


the principal part bf ih^ ddaft, ' ^nd by hi« 
'own brother Oppah coriquetbd Baflfein and 
Saicet. Thefe luccefles encouraged him to 
attempt becominjg a maritime, power, ahd 
turned his thoughts to the eftablifhrnent oiF a 

The neighbourhood of this enterprifing 
pteople made it Mecefiary for the prefidency 
of Bdmbay to .endeavour, by fome treaty or 
agreement, to prevent any dilputes which 
taight arife between them, and for that pur- 
pole one of their body was deputed to nego- 
tiate, who found the ftate in the fituatioii 
^bove defcribed, and therefore treated with 
the Paifhwa^ by the intervention of Oppah, 
with whom fundry articles were fettled* 

Wifli-ana was peaceably fucceeded by his 
fon Ballagee, more generally known by the 
name of Nanah ; during his adminiftration 
the government was car'ried on with vigour ; 
the military prowefs of the Maharattas efta- 
blifhed a tribute, which, under the appel- 
lation of Chout, was exafted from all the 
countries fbuth of their dominion ; the quar- 
rels among the different princes calling them 
at fome times to the aid of one ; at others, 


O F B a,M B AY. 39 

the non-payment of the Chout gave them a 
pretence of an irruption to gather the ar- 
rears ; and thus continually employed abroad, 
and at home governing with firmuefs and 
juftjce, Nanah reigned without ^ifturbance, 
and at his death in 1761, the power and 
poft was tranfmitted, as of courfe, to his 
fon Madharow, though he was then but four- 
teen years old. l^agonath * Row, the bro- 
ther of the deceafed Pailhwa, carried on the 
government in the name of his pupil, and 
by his prudence conduced it fb as to affirm 
the power of tlie Paifhwa. The neighbour- 
ing princes, particularly the fubah of the 
Dtcan, tempted by the youth of Aladharow, 
invaded the territory of the Maharjittas, but 
by Ragqnath's-aftivity and valour he was foon 
repulfed- His care extended to every part 
of adminiftration ; valour and conduft re- 
pelled foreign enemies; but internal evils 
were more difficult to be removed. 

Wifh-ana, on the firft eftablifhment of his 
power, as he was favoured by the r^ft of the ' 
council, to give it ftability, found it necef- 

* Called alfo^ and more generally by the EoglUb, Ra- 

C 4 fary, 

lo A-N' A C do 11 N-T 

f* * " ** • . -^ f r 

ary^ not only to employ' theni in the civlt 

department, but to give them all thq advanr: 

^ge of emolument that Could arife from their 

offices ; by this they were enabled to acquire 

great riches, and increafe their int^reft, and 

that of the whole braniliV caft : his fucceubr 

continued the fame manner; but probably 

Ragob^ ihewed fome inclination to check 

this growth of power and wealth ; for, during 

jhe minority of Mhadafow, they formed an 

intrigue^ the effefts of which have brought 

the Maharatta nation to fuch ^ ftate, that 

had aiiy pf .the neighbouring ppwefs been in 

a condition tq take advantage of it, the whole 

jnuft have been loft. The br^mins feared 

not only the diminution of power, and of 

the means of inpreafing their riches, |)ut the 

lofs of thofe riches, always an object' of jea-s^ 

Joufy to the prince? of that country. They 

iaw the fteady adniiniftration of the regent 

extended to every part of the nation, that hi$ 

view was to affirm the powerof the Paifhvya, 

^nd make'hini independent of theirs*; and 

from the. talents of the young prince doubted 

pot but,''through his iiiKruftions, he would 

purfue the fame plan, which muft end in 

their ruin. It was nepeffary to prevent tfeis, 

that-Ragdbah Ihould be removed. To eStd:^ 

• " this 

this would not have beeh etify,^ had « hot a 
fevourable cifcumftance diered the eppOt<-^ 


4 f 

I > M 

" Nana had left a Widay, who poffcflid'thtf 
art of intrigtae : ihe Was bfcfidcs a cbhllitt^ 
mate coquette; and, lirtce the death' bf^'hef 
huiband, had by her amours given great bf- 
fence to Ragobah, who could not, without 
refentment, behold fo (hameful a courfe of 
life ; he reproached her for it ; this procured 
him her inveterate hatred. The minifters 
failed not to improve fuch all advantage, and 
prompt her to ufe her influence over her (on 
to the deftrudion qf Ragobah. This was foc^ 
cefsful * a coolnefs at firft, was followed by 
an open breach , and total deprivation of 
power, and ended in Ragobah*s confinement. 


The fuccefs of this inltngufe at firft threw 
the whole power into the hand's of the mj- 
nifters j their rapacity knew no bounds ; afi 
>hey were the difpenfers of favour, in a coun* 
t'fy where prefents make the firft claim, they 
could not fail amaffing immenfe riches, and 
greatly extending their intereft by the oppor- 
tunity they had of niaking creatures, at the 
expeftce of the Paifhwa's treafory. It hap-, 


4ra AN A C C O UN T 

pefloed, that th« northern jaghedars^ feeiD^g 
the weaknefs of government, with-held their 
tribute, and were in this followed by the 
Pundits ; tliey purchafed, for a fmall part of 
what they ufed to My, the prote^ion of the 
miniders : fo die treafury vifibly diminilhed, 
while their Aores incfeafed. But this lafled 
not long. 

As MadharOw advanced to manhood, he 
fliewed all the talents which form a great 
prince, and put in practice the inftruftions 
he had received from the regent. One of his 
firft cares, upon his taking in hand the reins, 
was to deftroy this iniquitous combination, 
by narrowing the power of the rainifters, and 
neftoring that firmnefs of government which 
had exifted during the regency of his uncle ; 
who, notwithftanding the Paifhwa's penetra- 
tion, was llill kept in his difgrace and con- 
finement. The ability and aftivity of Mad- 
harow made him be refpeded at home and 
dreaded abroad, and would certainly have 
proved as advantageous to his nation as fatal 
to his neighbours, had his life been longer. A 
lingering di&:)rder put an end to his defigns 
in November 1772. He faw his end ap-i 
proach with firmnefs, yet with great anxiety 




^ ^ filtUalioti in >^hich he left hii fiittily. 
His brother and fuccedbr, Nbron RoW^ was ^ 
young ind weak, confiding in thofe who 
.nattered his paffions and vanity, and totally 
under the influence of his mother. The wife 
adminift ration of Ragobah recurred to him. 
The contraft between which, and that likely 
to be under thole diiad vantages, was ftriking. 
Senfible that the good he had begun could be 
continued by him c«ily, he wifhed to throw 
the management of the ftate into his hand. 
He knew the hatred of his mother, and the 
defigns of the minifters, the confequence of 
whole ambition might lofe the Paifhwaihip 
to his family, if not extinguifh the office : 
at the fame time much was to be feared from 
the refentment of Ragobah ; fome marks of 
which had appeared in his impatience at his 
confinement, projefts formed for his efcape, 
and meafures ^ taken to revive his interefls 
among his friends ; yet he knew him to be 
of a high fpirit, and naturally, not only bold 
and enterprifing, but alfb generous ; and as 
he had no children, fuppoied he might look 
on Naron as his own fon, and moved by the 
confidence repofed in him, a<9: as his friend 
and parent ; he determined therefore to try 
that method ; and calling to him his brother, 
ihewed him the dangers that furrounded him 


44 A^^A A aoa U'lH^T 

ff0m itim > jambltioti dad I avaiiiGei mi i the n^m* 
JGlws^vaud tihoi iotrjguing ipirit,; wkh thfe irhJ- 
fl)^ab!i9i^CQ|>er *of; hi$. jQiojtbec : hditheit liad 
H^bahiibrpMght in^ aiiii aftqr iiliabyikidd 
^preflions conjuredi hka,, forgstdng! the ill 
yfflgle (he iiadrecdwd, tp |)ro6ed: his iie^t^, 
^tidiaii.hiiti with hU. coufibdtk ; at the fatrte 
timeijr^oQiijieodipgitQ the youog man to be 
totally guided' ;by hiflpi, . ai)d to guard agaiiift 
<;be iijifluences iO£ his mother, and. the fiiares 
of the niiniftersi: each promifing what he 
requefted, he joined their hands in tok^n of 
inutual friendfhij) a;)d alliance. Soon after 
this he expired.- The 6rft aifts. of the 3rouiig 
Paithwa^ aftier the death. lof his brother, had 
the appearance of a determination to perform 
bis piiQUiife. 1 Ij was agrejed that Ragobah 
Ihould bf5 naib, or deputy,' and carry on the 
adfniniftratioQ of government in. the name of 
Naron, . In purfuance of this, when the Raja 
invefted hiip with the. firpaw.of Paifliwa, 
he conferred the naibihip on Ragobah * Thus 
things wore the face^df harmony ; but the 
difKsrent iiiterpfts of the perfcais conipofing 
t]i>e cabinet, and the reftlefs fpirit of Gopi- 
caboy *, who retained all her influence, foon 
deftroyed it, . iThe deceafed Pai(hwa had 

I .i 

* The m^thef of ^s^roo and widow of Nanah. 



pl^ed great confidepce in the Duan^ Sac-^ 
caram Bapoo, and recommended hitn to thac 
of bis fucceflbr. But a young man named 
Nanah Furaeze, who had attached himielf to 
Gofncaboy, and whoTe age and diipolitions 
nearly approached Naron*^^ insinuated him^ 
telf in his favour^ and. formed the deiign of 
making it ferve his ambition* His wealthy 
family intereft^ and connexions were* confi'^ 
derable enough to create a ftrong party, which ^ 
with the addition of > Gopicaboy, became aa 
overmatch for Saccaram : but Ragobah was 
an unfurmountable check to their defigns^ 
and therefore it was abiblutely deternuned tb 
remove him from the peribn of Naron^ and 
deprive him of his o^ce. The fame ix^ans 
which had effected this with Madharow. wece 
repeated ; and a particular incident gaye them 
a handle for their infinuations. . .: 

1 V . 

Whether the weaknefs and debauchery x)£ 
Naron had difgufled Ragobah, or whether he 
was fwayed by other motives, he, fome: time 
after the death of his nephew, had. adopted 
a youth named Furrat Row,: who was nearly 
related to Moodagee Bouncelo, one of the 
moft powerful and oobfiderable of the Ma* 
haratta chiefs^ This adoption, and the con- 
: pcxion 


nexion confequentto it, were b}!^ Gopic^hoy 
ufed M ftrong arguments that Ragobah de^ 
iigned to eftabliih himfblf in the ofSce of 
Pai(hwa9 to the prejudice of Naron. She 
reprefented that he had ad:ed contrary to th? 
cuftom of the country, which approved nqt 
adoptions where there were nephews ; that: 
by this the fuccefiion to his wealth was taken 
from his family ; and perhaps the high of- 
fice of Paiflwyi^ might be fo : that the con^- 
nexion with fo powerful a chief as Bouncelp 
could have no other view but eftabliihiug 
fuch an intereft as might overbalance tbi^ 
Faiihwa^s power. By theie infinuatioas, and 
the flattery of Nanah and his young cpm- 
panions, the dying requeft of the late P^iih* 
wa, and promife in confequence, were pbii«- 
terated^ and Ragobah was once more a pri- 
foner; and, on the iith of April i773> 
clofely confined, and deprived of the accefs 
of his friends. 

Karon, thus freed from the controul of 
his uncle, gave a full range to his foUy ; his 
debauchery, pride, and arrogance knew no 
bounds. The confidence was ^Vjm totally 
to Nanah and his adherents, and Saf carani 
-the Duan nqt only was negleded, but in- 



folted, and even defigns entertained of de» 
priving him of the duanihip. This Go- 
picaboy was labouring to effeft, and her 
principles were fo known, that it was no^ 
doubted but his life, if it feenoed neceffarj, 
would be quickly faciificed to her thirA of 
power and revenge. The apprehenfions rifing 
from this knowledge were foon encreafed to 
certainty. By the means of Bouncelo, Sac- 
caram received notice that a plot was formed 
to ai&flinate him and Ragobah; this, in a 
mind already inflamed, funk deep, and was 
followed by ?i refolution to fecure his own 
fafety by any means. The mod obvious was 
the death of Naron ; this was inftantly re-> 
folved : but it was neceffary to go further : 
leizing the power into bis hands and that of 
his friends was the moft defirable, but whilft 
the office of Paifhwa exifted, or Ragobah 
lived, this was not eafy. The extinguiih- 
ment of the office mighl: reftore the R^a, 
and deprive them and tjbeir caft* The death 
of Ragohah would open the eyes of all, and 
reprefent their aS:, not as a meafure of fafety 
and public utility, but inordinate ambition* 
On the other hand, .Ragobah, if released, 
might look on them as his friends, ai)d pre* 
lerve to them their wealth and power : this 



determined them to releafe and reinftate Rago^ 
hahi Ttiis icheme was laid, and carried 
into execution by the art of Saccaram, who 
prevailed on Mahomet Efoof and Summe^ 
Sing to procure two Sybadarfi to undertake 
the death of Naron : on the i8th of Auguft 
1773, they led their party, which conliAed 
of five hundred men^ to the I>urbar, undeiT 
pretence of being muftered ; the gates were 
forced, and the guards put to the fword. 
^aron, rouzed by the tumult, faw the full- 
neis of his danger^ and at the fame timt the 
impoffibility of<e&aping. The prifon, where 
Ragobah was confined, ieemed the only re4 
fuge, thither he; fled, and throwing himfelf 
at his uncle's feet> begged his pnotedion ; and 
afiurmg him nothing more ihap imprifon^ 
ment had ever been defigiiied againft him, 
befbught him to afiume the government, 
and only fave his life. Before any thing 
could be anfwened, the party broke in, and 
f6und him in that pofture. Hagobah had 
time only to take him in his arms, whicb 
ad would have faved him ; but a ilave, whomc 
Naron had lately cauied to be (everely whip«N 
ped, and who had led the party to this q)art^ 
tment, ui^ed thfem on ; their weapons were 
inftantly directed to the perfbn . of R^obah,L 



\vhb, to iave himfelf^ was obliged to aban^ 
don the wretched youth totheir Iwords* 

Thus did a moment determine the ^te 
of thefe two princes. The one, who Ian- 
guiihed in priibn when he expeded . deaths 
was railed to liberty and command : and the 
other, in the height of fecurity, fell a vidim 
to his arrogance. 

Ragobah was inftantly brought out of his 
confinement by Saccaram, and by him and 
the other minifters faluted Paifhwa. His ad« 
opted ion was fent to Sattorah to obtain the 
inveftiture of the office, with which he im* 
mediately returned, and Ragobah Altered, in 
all appearance, peaceably upon the execution 
of it. 

The conlpiracy againft Naron had been 
kept fecret to the moment of its execution i 
and as no life was fought but his, Nanah F^ur^ 
neze, and his adherents, had time to fave 
themfelves by flight, Ragobah recalled them^ 
and, having given them aflUrances, they re- 
fumed the exerCife of their offices ; Ragobah 

was acknowledged by them, and all the ii^^ 

D ferlor 


ferlor offices throughout the Maharatta itate, 
and every thing Teemed peace. 

Mr. Moftyn, the refident of the Englifli 
Company at Poonah, made him the ufual 
prefents, accompanied with a proffer of our 
friendfliip, which was accepted, and mutual 
en^gements were entered into to maintain 
the alliance made with his anceftor Badjerow. 

But, though every thing at Poonah wor^ 
the appearance of peace and acquiescence un- 
der this efliablifhment, diflatisfaftioh and Year 
lurked in the Durbar, and in a ihort time 
broke out to the difturbance of the ftate, iatid 
ruin of the Paifliwa. ^ 

The mifchiefs which had Iprung forth 
during the firft imprifonment of Ragobah, 
were but kept under in the fliort adminiftra- 
tion of Madharow, and revived with more 
force than ever in that of Naron. Hence Ra- 
gobah, at his acceffion, found an exhaufted 
treafury, a ceilation of the payment of tri- 
bute by the neighbouring princes, and the 
principal offices held by perlbns attached to 
one or other of the parties which divided the 
Durbar. Both united in their fentiments as 



to him. Even Saccaram an4 his party were 
determined, if pdffible, to keep him in fuch 
a /late, that he fhould be dependent on 
them, or at leaft not of ftrength fufficient to 
enable him to call them to an account for 
peculation and iniquitous wafte of the pub- 
lic treafure* For their freeing him from iiii- 
prifbnment, and inftalling him in the Pailh- 
tvafhip, was not owing to any afFedion for 
him or his family, but folely to the neceffity 
of Ihewing fomething of a regard to the pub-^ 
lici which might cloak their ihterefted views* 
Ragobah knew this well: he had already 
felt the efFefls of their cabals ; but as he was 
now not under the power of any fuperior j 
he did not fear influence ; he therefore took 
the fhorteft method of mending his affairs 
and recruiting his treafury, by requiring the 
payment of arrears of tribute from the princes 
of Indoftan, at the fame time managing the 
revenues of the ftate by his own officers, 
without a duan or treafurer : to bring the 
former meafure to pafs, he applied to Mo- 
dagee Bouncelo^ that fome of the force under 
him Ihould join the fmall body he had on 
foot, and at the bead of thefe he marched 
againft the Nizam of the Decan, to bring 
Jhim to pay the arrear due by him^ and en- 

D z campad 


camped in his territory. Though he knew 
the difpoiition of both parties againft him^ 
and from the nature of man muft have con- 
cluded that Saccaram's difappointment, in 
not being Duan, muft have made him a bitter 
enemy, he left Poonah, without proper pre- 
cautions, accompanied by fome of thofe very 
perfons who dreaded his power, and feared, 
when thoroughly eftabliflied, it would be 
turned againft them. The confequehce had 
nearly proved fatal to him : part of thefe re- 
tired from his camp, when in fight of the 
Nizam's army, and the other concerted mea- 
sures to deliver him up to his enemy. They 
fucceedcd fo well that in Noveniber 1773, 
when the Nizam's forces encountered him, 
having been, in the beginning of the adion, 
furprized in his tent, to which the Nizam^s 
troops had been fiiffered to pafs, he narrowly 
efcaped after receiving fome wounds ; a total 
defeat of his army followed. But as the na-»> 
ture of thofe troops . prompts them foon to 
fly, fo it faves many, who immediately again 
appear in arms ; Ragobah was therefore foon 
again at the head pf an army, which, by 
Modagce joining him, amounted to 60,009 
horfe ; on the other hand, Shabajee, brother 
to Modagee^^ who difputed ynth him the 



Rajafliip of Berar, joined the Nizam with a 
force of 40,000. Ragobah having t^en the 
fort of Muldroog advanced to Badar. The 
armies lay feveral days in fight of each other; 
frequent ikirmifhes enfued : both parties fuf- 
fered great inconvenience: Ragobah, from 
want of money, and the diftruft of thofe who 
remained at Poonah ; the Nizam from the great 
exp«nce and the uneafinefs on feeing two Ma- 
haratta armies in his territories : they were 
therefore eafily brought to treat on the 9 th of 
December 1 773, and a peace was concluded. 
Ruckna al Dowla, the Nizam^s vizir, promif* 
ing on his behalf to pay twenty-five lacks of 
roupies *, and to cede fbme fortrefles agreed 
on. This treaty was followed by an interview 
between thofe princes, in which the Nizam 
having convinced Ragobah of his inability to 
pay the fum ftipulated ; he, who wanted to 
fecure the afllftance of fo powerful an ally, 
and expelled much larger treafures from the 
Carnatic, and the country of Hyder Ally, 
changed the terms of their treaty, and re- 
- linquifhed the demand of the money, on 
the Nizam's undertaking to furnifli a certain 
number of troops whenever he fliould demand 

* About 250,000!. at 2s. the roupic, 

D 3 tiavlug 


Having finifhed thefe affairs, he direftecj 
his march towards the country pf Hyder, 
demanding the arrears of Chout, at the fame 
time writing to Mahomet Aly Cawn nabob 
of the Carnatic, requiring his afliilancc. 
Having advanced as far as Cutberge, thirty 
cofs * weft of Bedah, he was there met by 
Hyder's vaqueel, who immediately entered 
into treaty: Hyder paid down twenty-five 
lacks of roupies, and in return obtained the 
pofleffion of the diftrifts of Mudgvyanny,! 
Hanfcotah, ^nd Ohunda Grqqg. 

Ragobah then turned his thoughts to the 
invafion of the Caruaticj tp demand arrears 
of Chout frpn; Mahomet Aly \ his army by 
his fuccefs had increaled, and the hopes of 
the plunder, whjch is ever the fruit of thofe 
expeditions, •'had drawn to him a great num- 
ber of horfemen. This boded deftru<3:ion to 
that whole pountry, not only from the ra-r 
vages of his troops, but an invafion by Hyr 
der, who would not have failed to take adr 
vantage of thole circumftances. Fortunately 
for Mahomet Aly the attention pf Ragobah 
was called off by the effefts of the cabals at 
Poonah, to which his abfence had furniihed 
an pccafion. The party which had io fud- 

* A cofs is nearly two miles. 


O F B O M B AY. \ ss 

denly changed the fortune of Ragobah, fbon 
found that theit hopes of his fufFering them 
to acquire . an increafe of riches and power 
were vain. They remembered the fteadi- 
nefs of his adminiftration when regent, his 
determination to reftore the power of his of- 
fice, and prevent the mifchiefs which had 
given them fuch influence and wealth ; they 
now faw the firft fteps of the fame plan, and 
with the more likelihood of fuccefs to him 
and ruin to them ; as he was not governing 
for another, but in his own right, all parties 
were equally interefted to prevent the growth 
of this fyftem. The principal among them, 
Saccaram Bappoo, Nanah Furneze, Hurry 
Pcut Furkia, Anunt Seva Gi, and another, 
united in a league, which they called The 
Five Friends: a§ the hazard was great, fo 
the ftrojee was bold; they determined to de- 
prive him once more of the Paifliwalhip and 
liberty, and feize the government. This 
fcheme was thus brought about: Naron had 
left a widow called Gungaboy ; it was given 
put that fhe was with child, and the 30th 
of January 1774, ihe was feized by them, 
together with another lady, wife of Suda- 
boy, a chief of the Paifliwa race, who pre- 
tended to the regency, and, whom they kept 

D 4 ^» 


in confinement, and carried to the fort oi 
Porounder, where five bramin women then 
with child accompanied her ; thus they ob« 
tamed a great probability that a male child 
fhould be born in that fortrefs 2 till his pro« 
duftion the government was to be carried on 
in the name of Gungaboy, they affuming no 
higher title than that of minifters. Every 
perfon in the intereft of Ragobah was put 
under a guard ; and the Friends immediately 
levied troops to fupport this ufurpation, 

But notwithftanding all their precautions. 
Ragobah was informed of their proceedings^ 
before their advices could reach the confe- 
Iterates they had in his army, and through 
whom they expected to feize his perfon : he 
faw hU danger in the ftrongeft light ; many 
of thofe who furrounded him he knew to be 
of the bramin faction, and united with the 
minifters, and he judgftd that the tale of the 
pregnancy of Naron's widow would feduco 
many more, flis firft care was to fecure his, 
perfon ; he dift>anded his army, and retired 
to Gutty, a fort poflefled by Mora-row Go- 
parah, a Maharatta chief, who had great 
power and influence in that country, and 
comipanded a cojifiderable body of troops. 



Fortunately he declared hlmfelf his friend, 
and not only afforded him a retreat where his 
f)crfbn was fecurc, but promifed him aflift- 
ance to reduce this rebellion. An impolitic 
ftep of the Five proved at the fame time fa- 
vorable to him. They too foon fhewed the 
reality of their views by calling on all the 
chiefs to difcharge the arrears they owed ; 
this provoked many, and drove them to Ra- 
gobah, who by thefe means faw himfelf once 
more at the head of an army; that railed 
i>y the Five, commanded by Trimbuck Row, 
a chief of great reputation, was now marching 
againft him ; by the acceffion of Shabagee*s 
force it had increafed to 60,000 men ; Sin- 
dia, , Holcar, and the Nizam joined in the 
league with the minifters : ruin now feemed 
inevitable : neverthelefs, as he had now an 
army in which he confided, through his opi- 
nion of Mora-row who fupported him, he 
marched from Dalari on the fouth fide of the 
Khriftna, and croffing that river advanced 
towards his enemies. A body of troops 
from the Nizam had joined them, fo that in 
all rcfpefts they were fuperior to him. This 
infpired them with a confidence of which he 
took the advantage : on the 2 4th of March 
he halted at Merks, a pjace within four cofs 



of them ; in the entrance of the night he placed 
a ftrong party in ambufh, and then decamped 
with all the remainder of his aim j, leaving 
his tents ftanding, and all his heavy artillery ; . 
this apparent flight foon reached the ears of 
Trimbuck, who led the van of the enemy ; 
he, flulhed with the hopes of a viftory fb 
eafily gained, haftily marched in purfuit, with- 
out waiting for the Nizam and Shabegee who 
were in the rear : he met no oppofition till 
he had paffed the ambufh ; but then, to his 
great furprize, faw Ragobah marching fwiftly 
to attack him in front ; at the fame time the 
corps in ambufcade fell upon his rear. Trim- 
buck endeavoured by valour to repair the 
mifchief brought on him by his rafhnefs ; 
but it was in vain : his army was totally de- 
feated, he himfelf wounded, and taken pri- 
foner. Ragpb?dh now advanced toward Poo- 
iiah. Holcar and Sindia, who had not fent 
their quota of troops, though required by 
the minifters, feemed to ftand neuter* 

The confternatioii at Poonah was now 
great ; flrongly imprefled with the terror of 
the return of Ragobah at the head of a vic- 
torious army, it was once propqfed, as the 
only means of fafety, to releafe the Rajah, 



and reftore the antient form of government, 
by which proceeding they reckoned to fecure 
jthe adherence of moft of the Maharatta chiefs. 
Biit thi& was a meafure too replete of danger 
to themielves ; they muft have been called 
to account for all the nfurpations of their 
caft, which from that hour would be de- 
preffed ; lofs of wealth, perhaps of life, might 
probably follow. A few moments reflexion 
induced theim to adopt a lefs dangerous plan, 
which the birth of a child in Porounder, of- 
fered them an opportunity of executing. Ou 
the 28th of April 1774 a male child pro- 
duced, as born of Gungaboy, was called by 
the name of Madoo Row Narrain, and ac« 
knowledged as P^ilhwa, 

Although this contrivance was moft grofs, 
and attended with every circumflance of 
fraud, the firft report of pregnancy arifing fo 
ponfiderable a time after the death of Naron, 
the fei^ure of the widow, the ftrift care that 
none but thpir own confidential dependents 
fliould have accefs to her, a fence being 
ereded roiuid the fort for that purpofe, but 
above all the caufing her to be accompanied 
by five women with child, infbmuch that it 
was, at the time of her confinement, pub- 

6b A N A C C O U N T 

licly called an artifice, and treated as fuch 
by the Nizam in his propofals for a pacifi-* 
cation ; yet, fuch as it was, from it^ nature 
it kept many in fuipenfe, and enabled the 
contrivers not only to fcreen themfelves, bu^ 
maintain their powen The doubt that a 
fon of Naron's might exift, detached the 
friends of the family from the intereft of 
Ragobah, and the hopes of becoming confi- 
derable in the adminiftration of perfons who 
muft embrace every refource that offered, anc^ 
liighly reward thole whofe fer vices they 
needed, induced many, other wife indifferent^ 
to efpoufe this caufe. Ragobah was now 
within four cofs of Podnah, when, on the 
13th of April 1774, letters from the Five 
Friends to Holcar and Sindia were inter- 
cepted by him. The matter and ftyle of 
them was fuch as led him to conclude that 
a correlpondence was eftablifhed between 
them, and that Ibme bargain tending to his 
deftruftion was either fchemed or actually 
begun. The infidelity naturally to be fu-? 
fpefted from Indian chiefs fo feized his ima-? 
gination, that he gave himfelf no time ta 
examine whether thefe letters might not be 
an artifice of the fa^on, and were not pur^ 
pofely thrown into his band : he therefore 



liiftantly determined to leave a place which 
teemed with fuch danger, and have recourfe 
to the fiiendlhip of others. He immediately 
retreated with a body of a thoulaiid horfe, 
with which, on the 2 7th of May, he croffed 
the Nerbudda, and feemingly direded his 
march towards Dehli, to which place his re« 
maining friends imagined he would go ; but 
wh^n he reached Indoor, he turned fhort, and 
joined Govind Row, who was then at the 
head of a confiderable army aftually carrying 
on the fiege of Broderah. Govind promifed 
to efpoufe his caufe, and if their forces had 
been joined, they would have found them* 
felves at the head of 40,000 men. 

If the letters thus intercepted were a de- 
vice, it fucceeded even beyond the expeftation 
of his enemies. Holcar and Sindia, if be- 
come adverfe to him, had thereby a colour 
for joining the cabal, and his flight making 
his afiairs feem delperate, they law the faireft 
opportunity of completing their defection. 
Accordingly a treaty was entered into be^ , 
tween them and the Five Friends, who 
found it neceffary to eflabliih their fyftem 
on a bafis more extended ; and to intereft 
the Rayput chiefs in their caufe, vrhich, when 


65 AN AC C O U Nt 

fupported by the joint intereft of the bra* 
.jnins and warriors,. would become immove- 
able. Holcar and Sindia, and five other 
Maharatta chiefs, were therefore aflbciated, 
and the whole called by , the name oi'The 
Twelve Friends. The infant Narrain was by 
^them acknowleged Paifhwa, and the iirpaW 
. procured for him from the Raja. The prin- 
cipal article of agreement among the Twelve 
was, the total and perpetual es^clufion of Ra^ 
gobah from the government. 

The remains of Trimbuck^s army had been 
re-ailembled under another general named 
Hurry Furkia,^ who joined the Nizam, and 
Shabagee : they followed Ragobah in his re- 
treat. Ragobah's officers prefled him to at-^ 

\ tempt an engagement with them, hoping by 
a decifive ftroke to end a fervice for which* 

.in his circumftances, he was. not able to pay 

.them, for his tr?afures were exhaufted. This 
ardour made him fulpefl: their fidelity : on 
the other hand, the Nizam and Shabagee, 

. though they did not feparate from Furkia,r 
invented delays, their intention b^ng, not to 
put an end to the war, but harrafs. Ragobah, 
and draw money from the minifters. This 

. afforded him time to naake his . retreat with- 


^out lofs, and to deliberate upon his fu- 
ture proceedings. He did not chufe to ven- 
ture a battle, but direfted his views to Bram* 
pour, hoping that when there ' he might be 
able to raife money ; and that if Sindia and 
Holcar were well inclined to him, which 
he flattered himfelf might be, as the latter 
had received him in his retreat, and that 
both had quarrelled with the minifters, they 
would have it in their power eafily to join 
him ; his projeft was then to return into 
Berar, till the enfuing rains fhould oblige the 
Nizam to quit the field. And if he was not 
joined, but forfaken, to go to Sujah ul Dowla, 
<the Nabob of Owde, under whom his bro- 
ther ferved in a confiderable command. 

Union could not long fubfift among his 
enemies ; each claimed a fuperiority over the 
others. Some endeavoured to get Raja Bam, 
whom they kept confined at Sattarah, and 
who had no children, to adopt a fucceflbr, 
•whom they would have recommended ; but 
this he refufed. 

This uhfettled ftate of affairs at Poonah 
not only gave Ragobah time to breathe, but 
opened the eyes of many who Were originally 




well inclined to him, and encouraged fooM 
to affifl: him with their force. He was now at 
Indoor, where Holcar and Sindia lent him 
confiderable bodies of men. Govind Row 
was his declared friend ; ib that he was once 
more at the head of a numerous army. Hurry 
Furkia having left a confiderable detachment 
near Poonah, marched with the remainder 
towards Aurengabad. Shabagee retired to- 
wards Berar; the Nizam in difguft with* 
drew, and remained till the rains were over 
at Dowletabad, which was to be delivered Co 


On the 27th of June, Saccaram, Nana, 
and Gungaboy, in the dead of night, fieW 
precipitately from Sharpoor, where they were 
to have refided during the rains, to Poroun-« 
der : they pretended they had then found the 
truth of a treachery which they had long 
fuipeded, that Morabah Batchiabah Bob- 
bagee Naig, whofe fon had married Rago* 
bah's daughter, were to have feized them : 
that Batchiabah was to have executed this 
fcheme. Being difcovered, he retired towards 
Jezeray: Morabah who, through his great 
intereft among the people, thought himfelf 
fecure, remained at Poonah; the others went 



to Baramooby. During thefe troubles Hyder* 
Bugatta Jung, and Morarow Gopperah re- 
duced the countries on their fide of the Car- 
natic, and laid fiege to and took feveral forts 
belonging to the Mahrattas. 

Before thefe laft events, however greqt 
the appearance of ifuccefs, Ragobah thought 
it prudent to ftrengthen himfelf by an alli- 
ance with the Englilh. In the nxonth of 
Auguft preceding, he, through his Vaqueel 
at Bombay, had made overtures for that pur- 
pofe : the requeft on his fide .was a body of 
troops ; but the advantages he offered in re- 
compence did not come up to what the in- 
tcrefts of the Company and the repeated or- 
ders of the Directors obliged the council to 
require* The acquifition of Salcet and Bal- 
fein were the firft, almoft the fole obje<3: ; 
the ceifion of either of thefe was what he 
could not then think of. The importance 
and revenue were great ; the evident policy 
of that ftate was to reftrain within very nar- 
row limits e*ery power in the weftern part 
of their ddnotuiions. The Englifh from their 
ftrcngth and refources were of all others the 
mofi: dangerous neighbours ; and the bra- 
jiiins, by the honour of their family, were 

£ bound 


bound to preferve the poffeffion of thefe terri- 
tories ; they made . part of the partrcular 
demefne of the Paifhwas. The great Chim- 
«agee Oppah had conquered them from the 
Portugueze, and it was the , only exifting 
conqueft made by the natives of Indoftan 
upon Europeans. Thefe reaforls, and the 
flourishing ftate of his affairs, induced him 
to rejed: the conditions propofed by the Bom- 
bay council, the principal whereof were the 
ceflioii of thefe two valuable poffeffions. 
They waited till time in its revolution (hotfld 
offer thd wiflied-^for opportunity : it Was 
now come. The infiddiity df fome, the 
incOAftancy of others, atid the continual 
dread of a reverfe of fortune, turned his 
thoughts towards th« Euglifh, whom he now 
looked oil a« the only allies who would and 
could efieflually affift him; he therefore 
now made a lecond application to the coun- 
cil of Bombay, which, as lie was in greater 
waift of their a/fiftaftce, contained offers af- 
fording a profpe^ of attaining the long 
wifhed-for pofieffion of Salcet* To judge 
iproperly of this trahilai^ott it; ^18 necefikry 
to Gonfider the fifuaticfti, ciiiottrtiftsmces, con- 
nexions, and views of the pnm^ who ift- 
i^ited ^t part of Ibdo^n. It hath been 


O P B O M B A Y. 67 

already mentiprifd that the Ma^hratta nation 
confift^ ,of Jtoany tribes governed by Rajas,. 
acknowledging the fovereignty of the chiet 
Raja, who retides at Sattarah, and paying a 
rent to hioi ; in other refpefts they arc like the 
ancient feudatories in Europe, independent ; 
^ch governir^ his own lubje£l:s, being at 
the head, qf arables, and doing theitifclves 
juftice upon any wrongs offered by their 
neighbours, but bound to a certain fervice 
when called on by the chief Raja, and fur-* 
niihiDg a number of troops both to defend 
kinx againfl enemies, or to ^lA him in ex- 
pedi'tions into the neighbouring provinces. 
Each of thefe princes adually maintains a 
confiderable body of mea^ according to his 
means ; thefe armie3 do not coniifl merely 
of Teal Mahrattas, butalfo of fuch adventu- 
rers as being deftitute of pofleffions feek by 
foidiery to better their fortunes. If a man 
can purchafe a horfe fit for military fervice, 
he offers bimfelf to fome of the powers, 
whether Mahometan or Hindoo : tlius their 
armies are ibon formed. From the nature of 
^uch circumAauce$ their chiefs are feldom 
unuted ; each purfuies tlie line which fuits his 
intercfts, policy, or i)ften paffioa or prejudice : 
their unions AOd reparations are fudden and 

£:» Th* 

68 A N A C C O U N T 

The moft confiderable of thefe chiefs, as 
well from the extent of his territory, as the 
number of his troops, was the Bouncelo* 
The Raja was then an infant, adopted for a 
fon by the laft Raja Jonnagee ; he was_his 
nephew, the fon of his younger brother 
Moodagee, who, as father of this minor, 
claimed the regency ; but he had a brother 
named Shabagee, who being elder than he, 
in that right claimed it alfo. Ragobah had 
efpoufed the caufe of Moodagee, and had be- 
tides by his adoption of Furrut Ras ftrongly 
attached him to his intereft; the Five of 
courfe ^efpoufed the caufe of Shabagee. The 
embarraffment of the affairs of thefe princes 
obliged them to remain neuter. The terri- 
tory of this Raja extends from Orixa to Gu* 

The Guycawars poffefs the whole Guzurat, 
and the country as far as Danaum. It was 
won from the Mogul by Piilagee, the grand- . 
father of the prefent Raja ; he held it for fome 
time in independency^ but Domulgee his fon 
was by Nanah compelled to yield fomeplaces 
in it, to pay a rent, and bind himfelf to fur- 
aiifli a certain quantity of troops .when 
wanted. The revenues . of their pofleffions 


O F B O M B A Y. 69 

amount to eighty lacks of rupees, and their 
army to near 30,000 horfe. Inteftine divi- 
lions reigned in the family during the admi- 
nift ration of Madoorow. Futty Sing had 
through his bribes to the governing braming 
obtained the government ; on the acce/fioii 
of Ragobah he was by him deprived of it in 
favour of his brother Govindrow ; this pro- 
duced a virar, which had lb far turned out 
to the advantage of Govindrow, that Futty 
Sing was driven into Broderah, where he 
was belieged by him. 

Holcar and Sindia had confiderable power ; 
they had for a long time with-held the pay- 
ment of their rent, and their view was to 
profit by the dilbrders that reigned among the 
bramins; eonlequently, though they had join- 
ed with the Five, and even become members 
of the confederacy, they had not continued 
that union, they found it to their advantage 
to aift otherwife; policy requiring that Ra- 
gobah ihould not be totally deftroyed. 

Morarow Goparah poffefled the fort of 
Gutti, a ftrong place, and alfo a very con- 
fiderable diftridt which bordered on the coun- 
try of the Nizam. He had age and cxperi^ 

E 3 ence 


ence, and fought principally the prefervation 
and quiet pofleffion of his jaghirc, wifhing 
to fide with neither party, and watching the 
opportunity of making an advantage of the 
broils of his neighbours. 

The real as well as apparent intereft of 
the Ni?am was, that the| diflentiocis at Poo- 
nah fhould not ceafe. He had already ob- 
tained advantages from Ragobah, by the cef- 
lion of fome diftrifts, and had alio received 
confiderable fums from the Five Friends. 

The interefts of Hyder were the fame ; 
he was bufied in reducing the forts yielded to 
him by Ragobah, and feemed rather inclined 
to favour his caufe ; but the probability was 
that he would affift neither party ; yet his 
attention to feizcany advantage which might 
offer, made him much to' be dreaded. He 
had lately ftrengthened himfelf by an al- 
liance with the-Dutch, concluded with their 
amhafladors, Samuel Conftantind and Charles 

Robert ; the firft article of which was a 

» , - ^ 

mutual erigagemient to affift eacH other againft 

^ny powe^ 'With t^'hom eath (houH be at 

war ; the force ta be ftirnilhed by each in 

<afe of requifition was fettled^ as was the 

' pay 


pay they were to receive ; the gavernqr of 
Batavia was to furnifh thU force. 

By the eighth article Hydcr required, 
that (hould Mahomet Ally, or the Engliih, 
wage ivar againft him, the Dutch (houl4 
affift him with all the force they had in 
India ; and if they defired to recover their 
country in Tanjore, he would affift then^ 
with all his force ; the Dutch were to havQ 
the preference in his dominions for fandal- 
wood, pepper, cardamoms, and • rice, for 
which tliey were to give iron and brafs can- 
non, and all military ilores. , 

The Company was at peace on every (ide : 
the war with the RohiUas concluded to their 
advantage ; the fettlement in Bengal in a 
|louri(hing condition ; an army well difci- 
plined, a treafury every day increafing, and 
the former errors of government and mifma- 
nagement of individuals almoft' obliterated, 

Ragobah was now at the head of 4.0,009 
horfe ; and fuch wer^ the circumftances of 
the country round, when h^ applied for th? 
affiftance of the, Englifh^ and in i-^compcijp? 
pilfered th$ pofleflioi? of Salcet, Baffein, an^ 

E 4 it^ 

74 A N A C CO tJ NT 

ftored to the Mahratta empire without the 
interference of the Englifh, either by the 
dcftruftion of Ragobah or that of his ene- 
mies, not only thefe pofleffions would not be 
-ceded to them; but the colleftion of Chout 
Would be renewed through all India, All 
parties arc ready for an union on the pro- 
po^l of thefe expeditions : probably the pro^ 
vince of Bengal, molt undoubtedly the Car^^ 
natic,^ would have felt this. 

The ti'eaty concluded, fuch troops as could 
then be Ipared were embarked for Surat, 
whence, as circumftances (hould permit, 
they were ordered to join the army of Ra** 
gobah. Thefe were 2500 men under the 
command of Colonel Keating. The plan 
was to aflift in the redudion of Broderah, 
then beficged b'yGovindrow; and, after hav- 

richer of the churches were declared to belong to the 
king, and were applied to public ufes : tho admtDtAratiQO 
ofjufticewas put on a firm footings and carried on by 
perfons fent from Lifbon, unconne6led with the inhabitants 
of Goa ; the ranks of the clergy and military fettled ; and 
that every thing might look to the encouragement of this 
fervice^ the denominations of that rank were taken from 
military names : thus a biibop had the rank of a brigadier 
general* The force af^ually in Goa coniifted of four regi- 
ments of infantry, amounting to 2240 men ; one of ma- 
rioesy 800; tbrec of natiTQs^ i^^oop; aod 6990 £spoys. 

O F B O M B A Y. 75 

iiig put him in poflcffion of that important 
place, and* thereby (ecured a friendly coun-* 
try in thfe rear, to march direftly to Poonah^ 

This treaty, or the preparations in conse- 
quence, cotrld 'not • be carried of j with that 
fecrecy nedeflary to fecurtf the effefts of them. 
Hurry Punt Futkia, one Sf-fhe confederates^ 
who comm^iided their army, was apprized of 
Ragbbah*ft applicition, and* determined to at* 
tack him -whUft the fuperiority was on their 
fide: he ^- tRerefore, without lofs of time, 
direded^'hiS inarch to Broderah, This obliged 
Ragpbah to raife the fiege, attd retreat to the 
Mahi, a river neat CanibSy^. ' Fiitty Sing 
joined the coiifeflerate armj^jand, knowing 
the ceuntryi -'fed'-^them! ib fexpeditioufly, diat 
eroding the MaBrV /tlliey came unexpectedly 
upon ^hfe • tSMter ' of the army of Ragobah, 
An a^on e^fuedy''*in which Ragobah for 
fome time defended hlmielf well, till, by 
a party of Arabs who had engaged in the 
fervice of- Govindrow, refulihg to charge, 
he thought hitrifelf betrayed'^ and quitting 
the field, rSitired with one thoufand horfe to 
Gambay. His general Phaukrea, with the 
beft of his troops, retreated to the fort of 
Copperwange, about one hundred and fifty 

y6 A N A C C O U N T - 

cofs from Cambay, where Govindrow and 
Cpndah Row joined himf From Cambay, 
Ragobah proceeded to Surat, where the force 
lent from Bombay found him ; here he ratified 
the treaty. His general gave him notice of 
his retreat to Copperwange, with his allies ; 
of their fafety and numbers, and of the pof- 
libility of effedting a junction with the Eng- 
lifti force (hould they advance to Cambay. 
Upon this it was determined our army fhould 
proceed there, the tranfport by fea was eafy, 
and feoure ; on the 1 8 th of March they ar- 
rived, and proceeded to joi^ithe army of Ra- 
gobah* The confederate army lay between 
them ; yet, by a motion happily concerted 
between the commanders, the Engliih got 
poileffion of a fecure poft beyond the confe- 
derates, and a junction was formed on the 
1 9th of April 1775. The whole of the army 
thu3 combined amounted to 37,500; of 
which 2500 were Englifh troops. 

Fortune, or rather the ill-timed rapacity 
of the confederates; once more favoured Ra- 
gobali. Deeming his ruin compleated by 
the laft defeat, they haftened to fill their trea- 
fury. Orders, were fent to Hurry Punt Fur* 
kia, dieir general, to feize Modagee Sindia, 
the jaghedar of Uguir, and fend him to Poo- 


O F BO M B A Y-- 77 

nah to fettle his accounts ; he had intelli- 
gence of this, and knowing the conlquences 
of fuch an imprifonmcnt, he determined not 
to venture it, and fuddenly left the confer 
derate army with 12,000 ^horfe ; the pre- 
tence was, that troubles had arifen In his 
province, which his prefence was neceflary 
to compofe. Colonel Keating loft no time 
in advancing towards the enemy, who, 
though fuperior in numbers, carefully avoided 
an engagement, conftantly retreating as he 
advanced^ and fometimes fb as might be well 
termed flying. Ragobah had ibme parti- 
cular reafons to wifti that our march (hould 
be direfted norrfiward, but the deftination 
and exprefs orders required that the march 
ihould be to Poonah. 

The confederates were ftruck with the dc- 
iertion of Sindia ; it gave them room to 
fufpeft the fincerity of Holcar, their other 
northern ally ; . the Nizam, not withftan ding 
the ceffions made, and fubfidies granted by 
them, fent no troops to their affiftance; 
their ally Shabagee Bouncelo had been lately 
Q\xt off by his brother Modagee^ fevera^ 
chiefs, on whofe afliftance they had reckoned, 
now grew coldt and did not join them ; 



probably, if R^dbah marched with viftary 
to Poonah, would follow his ftandard. The 
weight which the ^ftance of. the Englifli 
would throw into the (bale, the extent 
whereof yet was uncertain ; all thefe cir-. 
cumrtances dctermiiled the Confederates ta 
hazard an engagccr^nt ; ' li tliey were vl&o^ 
rious it would ftop" ^e ^urre^lt, and prepared 
the way for a negotiation with u$, which Sac- 
caram Bappo and Nanah Furneze were then 
fneditating ; if it^ey were defeated^ the ruin 
turn inevitable watt' dfidy 'decelerated. They 
therefore fent orders to Hurry Furkia to rifle 
an engagement. 

In every W^r, wh^hei* e^itternal or civil, 
there are inconveniencies on each fide^ which 
fiirnifh great advantages to the adverlary: 
ejtperienced perfoiis kndw than they are in- 
herent in the nature of human a^airs, and 
irom that experience conclude chey extii : it 
Was ib here, Ragobah laboured Ai»>der the 
want of laredufe; wheni be wais fiii^ifod 
bnd forced toreiteat to Cambay^ all heoould 
carry with him was the valiae of fix lacks iof 
foupies in jewels; the remainder of his ¥a* 
iuable ejSeSb, w^di had not fallen into daie 
pofieffion of his eneinies, was iecuied in the 


Q F B O M B A ¥• 79 

fort QfDhar^ where his family had Pttirtdf 
and wa^ not then within his reach. Thcfe 
iix lacks were infifted on as a pkdge of hb 
performing his engagements to the Com* 
pany. The refource of borrowing from the 
Shroii^ or ^noney-kiiders at Surat CMkld be 
but weak whilA: his afi&irs {kx)d ia a preca* 
rtous fituation^^his own fecuritj wa>B tiot (uf^ 
ficient to procui'e their tnift^ and it was a 
^p too bold for the couaciil of Bombay to 
enq^age the credit of the Company,: tbia 
<di(br^3 was well IcitQwn at Pooaah { and 
that the Ihdian troops^ if not paid regularly, 
or hare liot iome^proiped of imniediate fatii^ 
fadioa, will not fight, or if they are brought 
to face the foe do it faintly; and the eonk-^ 
derates hoped fome advantage would arile t9 
them from it during an entitlement; any 
fert^nate turn, the ackreffion of £>£ae chie^^ 
would fo change the afpe£l: of a^irs as to 
make th^e difadvantages vanijfh : thia wa» 
anod»2r ^great inciteqatont to th^ir determina- 
tion of hazarding a battle^ 

Ragobah!^ wifti ^vas to have penetmtad 
kioithward to Ahmedavadt where he hoped 
to have pnocured money » which be ilood {q 
emch in ti»pd of; 'but this fcheme waa {oon 


So A N A c cb UN r 

found by Golonel Keating to be replete with 
jnconveniencies,. not only as it delayed the 
principal objed in view, which was his efta- 
blifhment at Pooirah, but from the nature 
of the march Itfelf, as moving fouthward 
would oblige the enemy to foll<Jw, and the 
(boner bring them to an a<Stion : he therefore 
infiftcd on bending their march that way. 
This had its efFe<9t ; the minifterial army fol- 
lowed, and on the 1 8 th of May came up 
to the rear of the Engliih, as they were at 
the entrance of a village where there were 
fbme defiles ; their commander havhig est- 
pefted this, his troops were very foon formed 
to receive them well, and though they at- 
tacked with great refolution, they were re- 
pulfed with a very great lofs on their fide, 
and very little on that of the Englifli, till 
unfortunately the firft company of European 
grenadiers, by an ill judged movement to the 
right retreated too precipitately from their 
ground ; they were followed by the Madras 
infantry, and thefe by fome fepoys ; their 
movement, though too rapid^ was regular 
till they reached fome hedges with openings 
at intervals ; crowding to get through theie 
occafioned confufion, during which they were 
charged with fuccefd by ^ body of horfe* 


OF B O'M B A V. «i 

They then fled, nor could they be rallied^ 
even by the comtnander himfelf ; their flight 
haviiig cleared the ground of them, the 
artillery played with fuch fuccefs on that 
body of horfe, that there remained not more 
than ten. This unfortunate motion was 
owing to an order given by the coninlander' 
to leize fome guns of the enemy, which tnuft 
have been improperly repeated and ill un- 
derftood : many officers were killed on that 
ocGtaiion. This was the only lofs on the fide 
of the Englifh ; that of the enemy was very 
greatj the artillery having deftroyed great 
numbers of men ^ horfes, and fome elephants; 
many periflied in their flight, and every day's 
news increafed their tofs. ' Thus the event 
was fortunate to Ragobah, and fo damped 
the fpirit of his enemies, that the confederate 
afmy never from that time was brought to 
ftand another attack ; they retreated, with- 
out even making life of the advantage of 
iftahy defendable pofts which the country 
offered. On the 19th of May Colonel 
Keating pafled the Mahi in purfuit of them, 
but could not reach them till the loth of 
June,' when, at the pafs of Bowapier, they 
crofied the Nerbedah j the Eiiglilh army 
there came up to their rear, which they at- 

F tacked 

82 A jNT A C C O U rst.T 

tacked with fuocefs : many were \dliddf their 
cannon w^re loft in the river, and many 
men, horfes, and camels drowned ; they re- 
treated from thence with precipitation, leav- 
ing great quantities of provender and pro^ 
vifion that they had not time to. . dcftfoy ; 
- which, with fome horfes and an elephant, fell 
into the purfuers hands : and thus the pro- 
vince pf Guzurat was evacuated^; ,To cora- 
pletp their misfortune, in their retreat, when 
they came to the Tappy , near Golow^ it was 
fo fwelled and rapid, that in pafling it they 
loft a thoufand horle# A little time before 
this the Mahrattas from Baftein had made 
an attempt on Salcet, \y here they landed 
with 35 OP m^n, but were repulfed with 
great Iqfs on their /ide. 

^The monfbons near approach made ^ fur- 
ther progrefs fbuthward dangerous : it waa 
necef&ry therefore to fufpend that part of the 
operations; but what remained of the fair 
feafonwas employed in the reduftion of Dub- 
bay, a fortified place fituated between Ba* 
roach, and Broderali ; this . poffeliion pro- 
duced confiderable advantages. Our army 
could winter there, and the proximity of 
Baroach made it eafy at the opening of the 
' feaibn 


fealbn^ 'f6r futfh reinFo;-c^tnonts and fupplies 
as migfrt /Be 'fent froni Bombay to join the 
army J tfecnte the fidge of Brodera might be 
tzCily undertaken. The poffeffion of that 
place was neceflaty to fedure the country be- 
hind, When the arniy flioiild proceed to Poo-^ 
nah, the great objeft of the expedition. Other 
incidehts then began to incline the balance to 
khe caufe of Ragobah, and the particular ad*!- 
vantage of the EngUfli. 

* It hath already been' mentioned that Futty 
"Sing, one bf tHb GfWicawars, had been ap- 
pointed gaveirnbt df^the cbyntry of Guzurat by 
the confederates ;';'a^- his "advancement was 
owing to the mouey he had given them, he did 
not Ibok on it 'as binding hin^ to their caufe, 
which he had efpoufed fblely with a view of 
preventing^ the ravage of his country; the cef- 
lions made by Ragobah to the Englifh, fliewed 
him things in^a difFereut light; he had, even 
at the time he joined the confederate army,' 
made diftant overtures to him, the retreat of 
Furkia made therii ferious and earneft. The 
appearance of fuccefs was totally on this 
fide; if the reality followed it, all chance of 
his retaining any part of what he now pof^ 
felled, was loft ; he had therefore recourfe to 

F 2 the 

84 an: a c .c o u.n.t 

the mediation of the Englifli. r^to whom he 
not only confirnied thofe grants which Ra- 
gobah had made in the country uadpr his gor 
vernment, but rnade further ..Cf^au^ t;o thp 
amount of i 78 ,000 roupies * a ye^r-Thrbugti 
this mediation a treaty was made, ivitb Raj- 
goba^; Futty Sing fubmit|^d to p^y hii^ 
the ufual tribute, and, furnifli. hiiii the aid 
claimed by the Durbar of Poonah; and whaf 
was of rnoft importance at that time, pro- 
mifed the payment of twenty-fix lacks within 
the.fpace of fixty days* Ragobah found 
means to fatisfy Gpvi^di:ow> aud concjiud*" 
ed this advantageous treaty 9!" peace rand aL- 
liance in the month of July 1775. 

J « ^> -ik 

The profpe£t of the affairs of the Coip- 
pany had not a lefs favourable appearance at 
fea. In the beginning of the year the Mah- 
ratta officer who commanded at Geriah had 
equipped a. fquadroix coofiderable for that 
country: it confifted of .five fhips ;. one of 
forty-fix, two of tbirtyrtwo, and two of 
twenty-fix guns, b^fides ten Gallwats, or 
fmaller yeflels, alio arnaed. , Commodore 
John Moore, with the Reveuge and ther Bom» 

• . ' 

■<••■• • 

* i7,8ooK at 2s. the rowpic. ,. ' 


V B O MB AY. 85 

hay grab, coming into thefe feas, immedi- 
ately flood toward this fleet, which bore 
away ; he ordered the grab to chace the ad- 
miral's fhip, which was that of forty-fix 
guns : . the grab engaged her ; this gave time 
for the Commodore to come up before (he 
cDuId run afhore: after an engagement of 
two hours the Mahratta admiral blew up, 
and was entirely deftroyed ; her commander 
and moft of the crew perifliing. The trade 
along the Malabar coaft was now efFeftually 

The caufe of Ragobah feemed now trium- 
phant ; befides the acccflion of Futty Sing, 
which enabled him to pay his troops, his 
friend and ally Moodagee Bouncelo now in 
full and undiftnrbed pofieffion of his domi- 
nions, was advancing to join him at the 
head of a very refpexSable fc^rce. Ifhmael 
Gawn was in march to join him with 4000 
horfe. Appagee Gunnis, who commanded 
at Ahmadabad, entered into treaty to fur- 
render the place to hii-n. The pofleffion of 
this fecured him from any enemy to the 
north of Nerbedah. A detachment was' 
ai^ually fent to receive it. 

F 3 The 

8^ A N AC C O U NT 

The confederates' had made gredt ^vaticcs ' 
to the Nizam to engage him to Ifend them 
affiftance ; they offered to cede to him the 
important fortrefs^ of Dowletabad with Bur- 
l^ampore Aflery, and fome diftrifb. which 
the Mahrattas had conquered* Thov^h he: 
treated their pretenfions, and the infant 
Pailhwa they had fet up, with the greateft 
contempt, the advantages offered were too 
great to be rejefled ; the poffeffion of thefe 
cefiions once gained, a dexterous fiding with 
the viftorious party would confirm it. If- 
fortune Ijept the balance even, whilft it did 
fa he was fure of the continuance of this 
poiJeffiou; he therefore, entered into treaty, 
and piade a folemn engagement to afiifi 
them, and in confequence they evacuated 
Powletabad, and gave orders to their troops 
to withdraw from the other ceded places : 
but now he faw the time was come when to 
retain thefe he mull abandon his new allies ; 
the Englilh having efppufed the caufeof Ra- 
gobah, had changed the face of affairs : appli* 
cation was therefore, made through the Na- 
bob of Surat for the Nizam to be admit- 
ted into the alliance. He required the con- 
firmation of what had been ceded to him, 
and that the Engliih (hould guarantee this 

pofl'effion : 

O F B O M B AY.- 87 

poffeffioft : in return he offered his whole force, 
confifting of 50,000 horfe, 15,000 fepoys, 
and a train of artillery : at the fame time he fent 
his vaqueel to Ragobah to propofe a general 
accommodation on this plan, that Ragobah 
fliould enjoy all the honours of the Paifliwa- 
ihi'p, and fufficient revenues to maintain his 
jdignity, that the government fhould be car- 
ried on in the name of his adopted fon Fur- 
rat Row, that the adminlftration fliould be 
in Marabah Furne^e as Duan, and the con- 
federates fully pardoned, and fecured in the 
poffeffion of their efiefl:s, and the ceflions, 
as juft now mentioned, were to be confirmed 
(o him. 

As the caufe of Ragobah advanced, that 
of the confederates declined* Sindia and 
Jlolcar had dgferted them, and the * lofs o£ 
their ailiftance was a fatal blow, for on that 
they principally depended. Nanoo Oppah 
governor of Poonah, whofe reputation and 
private chara<9:er gave their party credit, was 
dead : Morabah Furneze whp was one of the 
minifters, and a man of confideration, had 
not from the beginning joined the confede'» 
racy, though he had fubmitted to ad under 
the governmei^t it had eftabliflied : and yet,' 

F 4 ^ 


. fo much were they afraid of his influencd, 
that they left him unmolefted. Shabagee 
Bouncelo ^ was no more, and death had 
taken from them another very ufeful friend 
in fhe perfon of Ruckna ul Dowlah, the 
minifter of the Nixam, to which accident 
they attributed his leaving them, and treating 
with Ragobah. But the union of the Eng- 
lifh was the moft fatal ftroke; refinance to 
this was. by moft of tlie confederacy conli- 
dered as vain in the end, and this defpoUr 
dencv, which made each man folicitous for 
his own fafety, and anj^ious for fecurity of 
liis perfon and wealth, made him fufpicious 
of his neighjbour, and defirous to prevent 
him in treating either with Ragobah or his 
allies; add to this," that from the known ra- 
pacity of the bramins, their fuccefs was 
dreaded, even by their friends; that vice had 
infeifted and deprefled their affairs from the 
beginning. ♦ The feveral Mahratta chiefs who 
had been drawn to fupport their caufe by 
promifes of large fums, were fruftrated : the 

^ Thprc was a contefl between Shabagee and Mona- 
gee ; a battle enfued ; in this Monagee was defeated and 
taken prifoner, and the next morning Shabagee was found 
4ead in his bed : Monagee >vas reftprcd ^nd proclaimed 
p.aja of Berir, 




O F B O M B A Y. 89 

public treafure leflened by their partial ma- 
nagement, and now exhauftcd by what rfiey 
had lent the Nizam, could fumiih no more; 
and though the bramins had great fums of 
their own, their avarice overcame their policy, 
^nd prevented their lacrificing any thing to 
the common caufe; each, when applied to, 
referred to the treafure expefted from the Sir- 
cars. The nature of their troops prevented 
their being relied on when oppofed to re- 
gulars with a well ierved artillery; for each 
man had two fears, that for his horfe being 
as ftrong as for himfelf, and as thifty are con- 
tinually clamorous for their pay or other 
reward of leryice,the greateft advantage may 
often be loft for want of a fufficiency to fa- 
tisfy them. Furkia was ever in dread of 
fbme accident of this kind ; he law the dif- 
fatisfadtion among the chiefs, and every tno- 
ment was at the eve of being forfaken, per- 
haps feized an3 delivered up to the enemy. 
This had induced him, even in his flourilh- 
ing ftate, to try diftant overtures for peace ; 
during his retreat the evil increafed, the 
men. n\ Ho had loft their horles openly com- 
plained, and demanded their pay of their 
leaders, who in their turn prefled their com- 
mander : to f^tisfy their demand was im-r 

^ pollible; 


^v AH A C C O U N T 



' The "news pf the treaty witK Ragobah^ 
and of the march in con&quence, arrivred at 
Calcutta the lattjsr end of May 1775. Far 
from meeting with tlie approbation of the 
governor and council there, it was condem- 
ned by allasa meafuire impolitic, unjufV,^ and 
unauthorized ; impolitic, as tlirowing the bur- 
den of the war on the Company; unjuft, as no 
injury had been received from the Mahratta 
ftat^; and unauthorized, as the a£t of par^ 
liament vefted in the Supreme Council the 
authority of treating with the powers of In- 
doftan. The manner of carrying on the 
war in confequence of the treaty was no lefs 
reprobated than the treaty itfelf. Sending 
the Company's troops at fuch a diftance from 
Bombay was called. a rafh ftep, which might 
be attended with fatal confequences. The 
governor general, in his minute of the 31ft 
May 1775, painted thefe fuppofed evils in a 
very flrong light, though at the fame time he 
prefented many difficulties attending the exe- 
cution of any orders they jmight give in con- 
fequence of this reprobation ; and' therefore 
profefled that be was much embarrafled in 
bis. choice of what meafures might be moft 
proper to be taken. That as tbingt could not 
be replaced as they originally ftood, fo the 


OF BOMB AY.-. ^j 

diftance they were at prevented fhem fron 
knowing the exaft* fifti^ion of them at that 
time ; that it miglkt 4ie fuch -that the with- 
drawmg our jDroc^ from Ragobah might be 
attended ^th many -difficulties, perhaps dan- 
gersJ He therefore propofed that the preii- 
deut^and boi^cil of Bombay Ihould be - en- 
jointed to: caneel the treaty with 'Ragobah, 
and withdiiaw the dietachmeht within the 
lines rof the Engliih poifefiionsy unlefs i^ 
ffaduld appear, in the firft place, that they 
had ^ obtained ibme coniiderable advantage % 
or, ibbondly, that it (hould be dangerous to 
recall thd detachment; or, thirdly, that a 
negoclation Ihould have taken place between 
Ragobah and his opponents. 

Mr. Barwell concurred with the governor 
general in the exd^ption propofed, and voted 
againft die recall of the army ; but General 
Ciavering, Colonel A^onfbn, and Mr. Francis 
were totally againfl any exceptions whatfb- 
evo;; and it was voted by that majority, that 
the treaty -ihould be cancelled, and the troops 
abfblutely recalled. • It was determined to' 
eoter into a direA negotiation with the party> 
at Poonah, and to fend Colonel Upton to 
Ueat with them in the name, of the Supreme 

Council : 

94 A.N A CC O U NT 

CoubcU ; the pucp^t of the inftrb^n^ ib 
be given to him w^s^ M the firft pkce^ td 
exprefs a regret for the hoftile^ ineafures ad^* 
opted by the couocil.of Bombay iu concurs 
rence with Ragob^^ .the Siipr^e .Cbxincil's 
difapprobation of: that treaty , their de&ro 
of re^eflabli(hing a (incere and lalHhg peaccy 
to excufe the feizure Qf<.$ali$t :a9 stintefiini 
only to prevent ita f^Uiag i|)to.the. haodii of 
the Portuguese^ and to allbdge the impDffi4 
bility of reftoring it without the peritifliott 
of the DirefkdrBi to iAform tiiexa:of the Qr4 
ders given for the withdrawing idtartroqpa 
from Ragobah^ a^d to endetivauc to iutlttda 
him in the tre^y ^ 

< 1 w 

In the mean time letters were written tp 
Saccaram BappoO aC Poonah, dfmouiicing the 
departure of Colonel Upton^ expreffing a dif^'' 
approbation of the meafures ' purfued by th^ 
council of Bombay, and inforaiing them 00 
the orders given in coniequence* Saccanmoi 
was an extraordinary perfon ; he h»l riim 
from an ori^nal {bite of poverty^ which pre? 
vented the firil rudiments of education^ h]{r 
a natural addrefs which fupplied that; waolv 
he had by degrees advanced hit fortune fix 
9S. to attain the principal officets of the ibte^' 



his experience ieconded his^ talents^ but not 
knowing how to write or read he was obliged 
to make ufe of and truft others. His'prin- 
cipal coritidant was a bramln called Lakr^ 
who had been governor of Concan, ^ proviticd 
including Salcet and Ba£ein, and had rcafott 
if that party prevailed, to hope a return to 
that government. Saccaram knew the trud 
interefts of the Mahratta ftate, and therefor© 
was naturally averfe to any ceffions of terri- 
tory, and every meafure which could tend 
to give power and ftrength to the Englifli ; 
this inclination muft have been greatly 
ftrengthcned by the reprefentatioft of Lalar, 
who, by the ceiHons propofed, would be fo 
great a lofer; this letter wis therefore too 
favourable to. their views, Hot to produce 
great efFe£b. The firft was, frefli ihftruc- 
tions immediately fent to their Vaqueels at 
Bombay^ which arrived before they had de- 
clared in form the purport of their miffion : 
this now appeared very different from the 
humility which accompanied thiir firft ap- 
plication I they demanded that 'the perfbn 
of Ragohah (hould be delivered up t6 thetn ; 
the-.reiftorationdf Salcet, and other acquifi- 
tions vsrhich were then in aftual pofleffiou of 
the Engllfh ; and the rellnquifhing all thought 


96 AN A C C O U N T 

of Bafiein, in return for wHich they conde^^ 
fcended to defray the charge and expence hi- 
therto incurred : yet at this very time, in all 
refpe(3:s, other than the change likely to hap- 
pen by the refoiution of the Bengal council, 
the affairs of the confederates were in a fitu- 
atjon almoft defperate ; Morabah Furneze 
had fent a trufty perlon to Ragobah with:?af« 
iurance, that he and four of the moft power- 
fijl men at Pooiiah were ftrongly attached to 
his interefts ; and information that Furkia 
was at Aurengabad, having fcarce 5000 men 
under his. command ; that the' whole force 
of the confederates did not exceed 12,000, 
and thofe npt daftly affembled, or worthy of 
dependance pa them ; that .Saccararh and Na-* . 
nah Furneze had fecured themlelves in Po- 
rounder foit, fearing to go from it ; that Mo- 
rabah himielf vvas actually coUefting a force 
from the troops lately paid off by the confe- 
derates, which he doubted not, by the time 
the aljies could afcend tlieGauts.*, w^uld 
amount to 10,000 horfe, with which fhe* 
would join Ragobah, and carry himt without 
bloodihed to Poonah. At the fame time die 
news from the . fouthern parts were equally 

* Gauts, Goats, or Gattes, arc paffcs through the 



favourable : Beeii Singi the Raja of Marwar* 
fent his Vaqueel with information, that he 
was oh his inarch to join hitn, that he was 
within forty-five cofs of Aurengabad, and that 
his force confided of" lo^ooo men. 

The council at Bombay were firuck witK 
amazemement at the refolutions of the Su- 
preme Council, and the celerity with which 
they a£ted in confequence* They deputed 
^r. William Taylor, one of their body, to 
Calcutta, to reprelent the motives which had 
induced them to z&i the confequences of 
what they had done ; the happy fituation of 
the affairs of the party they had elpouled ; 
the benefits that would refult to the Com- 
pany from the ceffions ftipulated by their 
treaty with Ragobah ; the danger of reducing 
him todefpair, by abandoning his caufe; the 
difgrace that would attend a breach of a 
treaty fo folemnly made ; and the neceffity 
they were under to make it, if they would 
obey the orders of the Directors to omit no 
occafion that (hould offer of getting Salcet 
and Baflein into pofl'eflion. 

Mr. Taylor arrived in the beginning of 
October 17 75 5 and, on the 9th, prefented a 

G memorial 

^8 A N A <!! C O U N T 

'memorial to the Governor and Council, re- 
prefenting thefe fevSral matters, and proving 
the fatal confequences of fending any perfcni 
diredlly from Calcutta to Poonah. 

After defending the meafures of the Bom- 
bay council, by fhewing the advantage ac^ 
cruing from this treaty, and the neceiSty of 
afting in conformity to the orders of 'the 
Diredors, the danger attending the alteration 
of meafures, and forfaking Ragobfeh, from 
the circumftances of the neighbouring princes; 
the dcfgrace neceffarily following the breach 
of a treaty, which, though perhaps refcind-^ 
able by the S uprehie Council, if the fettk- 
tnmt by the late aft of parliament was fuch 
as to invalidate in every cafe, the afl:s of 
ful^ordinate prelidencifes when not confirmed 
by that council ; yet as to the powers with 
whom it was 'made, unacquainted with 
thefe new arrangements, and confident thk 
W'hen they tr^afted with the Bomba!y coun- 
cil, they treated with the Company, muft 
be looked on by them as having force, and 
not to be refcinded without a breach of 
good faith ; the policy of keeping up thcr 
prcfent mode of adminiftratton in Poonah 
without running the hazard of . having the 
"tramins difpoffeffed, which might happen if 


^ BOMBAY. 99 

byt^e deilruftlon of Ragobah that part/ 
^l)k}'W^nt a chiefs ^d mud end iti re« 
eft^btifhi})g the Raja in power, and put an 
end to all diiSentioii, the confequences of 
which mui^ be fatal to the peace of all the 
i^ed of Jndia. 

Thac as the letter written to Saccaram was 
woxtledy imply ing that the Supreme Council 
WQce un^quairited with the acknowledge 
m&it of Ragobah as Paiihwa previous to the 
treeatyv it kft it yet in their power to chufe 
wbajt meifures they would take; he there- 
fore 'eri^ated them to warrant and affift the 
cdui^il of Bombay to fulfill their engage- 
ment with the Pai(hwa, as the only fafe 
and hpnourable expedient in ' this junfture, 
aivl probably the laft opportunity of attain- 
ing the end propoied by the Directors, and 
e{labli(hing the affairs of the Company on a 
firoa and iblid bafis. But whatever might 
he their ultimate refolve, as to treating at 
Poonah^ he moft earneftly recommended that 
the orders for withdrawing the army from 
Ragobah (hould be revoked ; it would have 
at leajl this good effeft, that all parties would 
bo .kept in fufpence until it (hould be finally 
jtiiQWh, whether the prefent conteil ihould 

G 2 be 

jco A N A C C O U N T 

be decided by treaty tor arms ; it would pre- 
vent the bad confeqiiences of a defertibn of 
Ragobah, \?yhich muft be that of hi« allies, 
and inevitably of the Englifh ; that • wHat-^ 
ever judgment might be formed of the origin 
of the meafures, even though the council 
had unneceflarily engaged in a war, yet the 
continuance of it, as things flood, was ne- 
cefiary to the fafety of the Company. If it 
fhould be pbjefted, that this war was a vio- 
lation of engagements formerly entered into 
with the Mahratta ftate, and of a neutrality 
recommended by the Diredors, the anfwer 
was plain : thefe engagements* being with the 
acknowledged chief of that nation and its 
leg*al reprefentative, could not be a violation, 
but were in truth a continuation of the old ; 
that on one fide honour, acquifition of re- 
venue, and influence in the firft ftate in 
India, muft be the confequence of purfuing 
the enterprize ; on the other weaknefs, 
diigrace, and ruin muft follow the retreat 
of the army before the accommodation 
which fettled the interefts and fecured the 
fafety of the feveral parties fhould have taken 
place. Before Mr. Taylor prefented this 
memorial he had conferences with the Go-^ 
vernof General, and each of the njembers of 



tW council. ; The Governor, whofe long 
refidence in and experience of- the affairs of 
India, made him a more competent judge^ 
was foon convinced that the ftep was preci- 
pitate ; Mr. Barwell joined with him. In- 
deed he had from the beginning oppoied the 
withdrawing of the army ; but the three 
members lately arrived from England had 
adopted a principle of peace in all events, 
and therefore over-ruled every expedient pro- 
pofed by the Governor for complying in Ibmo 
meafure with the reprefentation ojf Mr^TayloK, 
and fb determined Was their refqlution, that 
an anfwer was returned to his. memorial the 
very day it was prefented. All thefe things 
happened in 0£tobex i 775 *i 

In confequence of the refolutions taken by 
the Supreme Council, pofitive orders wcxe 
lent to the council- of Bombay, that the 
Englifli " army Ihould immediately with- 
draw withui.the limits of the Compan/& 
poffeffions ; that if Ragobah defired a retreat, 
they fliould afford it him ; that until the treaty 


* It may be proper to place in one view the fevcral 
peaces ceded to the Compapy by the treaty between them 
and Ragobah, with their produce to^the Company. 

G 3 Salcet, 

/'<. ' •---,. •' «k. 

, , . :v.v.,., V'--,. 

'. ■ ,s -i ^ n 1. »■ i , -.^ . ' » j 

- ■ i.- '. 

ro2 ANA C C<? U N T 

fliould be fettled between Golonel Upton am! 
the governnieht ^ at Poooah, they ihould ret 
tain the poflefJion of Broach, Coriab, Chicke* 

• . \ t ■ ■ ' 

^ t « « . •• • 

Salcct, Caragah, Elephanta, Hbg Itotfd^ Rs* 

and Canary produce a yeat* '-r-: 85Q,Ooo ' 

^afTein, with its dependencies, — 400,000 

Orpad '-^ ' — ' -r-* -r* 35<5>oc>o * 

jambofier -rr i — ; -?* 4PO*ooq . ,,,\ . 

The .Gwjcaw^r^ Share of Preach •, 3S9>oo<> 
To be paid ^fnnually from Qcclaiier 75,000 

1 1 ■ III 

< ^ J 

Which, at.25. the roopie, is £.192,500 
• '^ndat2§.3rf. thec6mmob ' 
,. /C5u:bange,,i? L. 216,562 .{ 

Pr^fented to the Cpinpany ■ 

fince the treaty by Rago- 
bah, a&d i*otty Sing .on • 
the coaciufion of their . ^ 
treaty, ' Es. 

Coriab, near Broach, 50,000 

CilicbeJyi pear Sprat, . io'o^ooo, ^ 
Yeriow, near Surat, ; 2,B^ooo 

Ahipood, adjoining BrtJacb^ '156,000 * . " '^ 
' -* ■ :■ . . •! • 1 f. V ■ ^ ■ ^■ - >3 28,00a : 

Total ceded for ever 


|l«maipiqgfefcurily fprJthO^ V L. 225,390 at 2§. 

,payment.ofthefubfidy 5^ • _orL. 253^442 at 2s.3d, 
ReijiaindeV of the fcyennc ^ Rs.' - 

:,iof Ooclafier 110,000 

Hanfooc — 

Verfaw — — 

. . . , 

^ptal f^curit j 

•# / 

r— • j27,ooQ 
rr 100,000 


T 4.» » » ' 


OF ]^ O B4 9 A Y. 103 

ley, aiid Yerfaw, but carefully avoid all ho- 
ftilities with the Mahratta army. Colonel 
Upton was to perform his jourqey to.Poonah 
by land. Though this was ^td' ta^e up a 
great length of time, no inconvenience was 
fbrefeen, as it was fuppofed that, vpon a cef- 
lation of arms, every thing would remain 
quiet and in the fame ftate, and that paflpoits, 
as well as conveniencies of travelling, would 
be procured for him during his whole route 
by the provifion of the Pbonah gover/iment. 
The Colpnel fet out on the 1 0th of July 
1775, with a proper accompaniment, hav- 
ing with him Captain Allen Macpherlbn," Sir 
James Paterfon, Dr. Sutton Banks a phyfi- 
cian , and Captain Benjamin ^ Wroe : and on 
the 24th of September had proceeded as far* 
as Benares: he there received letters from 
Saccaram, the contents whereof gave him 
no great encouragement; and whofe flyle 
was fuchj, that he complained of it to the 
Supreme Council, who thereupon wrofe to 
Saccaram ; and at the fanae tirtie to the co- 
lonel, that h^ fhould take advantage qf the 
fituation of the army under Colq^el Keating, 
by telling the Poonah miuifters, that it now re- 
mained inactive near Surat, but that it fliould 
a<^ acc9rding to their behaviour ; if they made 

G 4 . ^ ^uy 

I04 A N A C CO U N T 

any motion with their troops, that army 
ihould likewjfe move, and the Supreme 
Council would not think thetpfelves bound 
to keep terms of amity with them : that as 
the Council meant to a(3: with good faith, 
they expefted the fgme treatment in every 

The eq^rneftnefs of the Englifli for peace 
had appeared plainly in the beginning; for. 
the ceffatioA of arm3 had been pubiiflied, and 
taken place in the month of Auguft ; and 
now, notwithftanding the prefling inftances of 
Ragobah, that the army Ihould not yet with- 
draw fropa him, as it would* produce fuqh a 
coldnefs amongft all his friends, who wouid 
give yp his caufe as loft and himfelf as 
ruined that he Ihould be immediately aban* 
doned by them, the arm/i on the 20th qf 
.Oftober 1 775, began itg march fromPubbay 
to retire into the Pergunnah of Surat ; and 
on the 1 3th of November were withjn fixr 
teen cofs of that city. Ragobah dared not 
remain without their prote^jon, and there- 
fore y/lth his troops followed their march ; 
with hope, that from the reprefentations 
xaadp at Calcptta, the Council might be yet 
ini^uped to favour his cayfe. 



The Nabob of the Carnatic, fearing the 
inr6ads of the Mahrattas when once iShcy 
fliould enjoy peace at home, deilred to have 
a (hare in any treaty which fhould be con- 
cluded by Colonel Upton with them ; and 
for that purpofe that he might fend a Va- 
quefel to Poonah ; the Council confented 
that Mr. Chambers fhould* go from him to 
be affiftant to Colonel Upton in what regarded 
his intereft ; but he was not to treat himfelf 
with the miniilers, or af2 in any; other. nian-* 
ner than thi'ough the Colonel, who alone was 
to manage all matters with them. Colonel 
Upton in proceeding on his journey did not 
find the efFed:s expe£ted from that readi- 
ness in the Poonah Durbar, which the majo- 
rity of the Supreme Council flattered them- 
felves with. On the 25th November he 
wrote from Bopaul, which is feventy cofs 
from Burhampoor, that he met many oblla- 
cles ; that the country was in arms ; that 
he had yet received no paflport from Poonah ; 
at the fame time the miniftry wrote to the 
Supreme Council, that they had given orders 
for having every thing prepared, fb that Co- 
lonel Upton might have a free paflage; but 
that they had not then heard of his approach. 
The ftyle of this letter fhewed no pacific in- 
clinations ; they complained that the Bombay 

council ; 


fomuch, that in the beginning of February he 
had no hope of concluding any thing with 
them. The detail of what pajSed between 
him and them from that time to the conclur 
lion cannot be interefting* After many en^ 
tanglements got over, at laft, on the i ft of 
March 1776, ,a treaty was^ figned at Poroun- 
der by Colonel Upton, on the part of the 
Company, and Saccaram Bappoo and Balkr 
gee Pundit, on that of the infant Paifh^a. 
By this it was, in the firft place, mentioned, 
that peace between the Company in general, 
apd the Bombay council in particular, and 
the infant Paiftiwa and his minifters, Sac- 
caram and Ballagee, on the part of the Mah- 
rattas fhould be fu]ly eftabliihed. That this 
peace on each fide fhould be forthwith pro- 
claimed. That the Mahrattas being 
recover Salcct, would in return give the Com- 
pany a country producing three lacks of rou- 
pies, in the neighbourhood of Broach ; but jt 
was to be left to the option of the Supreme 
Council whether or no to accept this equiva- 
lent. The advantages to the Englifti were ; 

^ I ft. All right to the city and pergunnah 
of Broach was to be ceded to the Company 
free irom. all demand whatfoever; they were 
to have likewife a country of the yearly pro^ 


OF BO M B AY- 109 

duce of three lacks adjoining to Broach, the 
bounds whereof; ihould be detercained by two 
perioq« for the Company, and two perfons 
for the Mafarattas : and for the expeuces of 
the war, the Englifh fhould be paid twelve 
lacks ; lix within iix months, and fix within 
two years. 

In return for this, all and every part of 
the Onxurat country which had been ceded 
by Ragobah to the Englifh (that only fettled 
OH them by this treaty excepted) was to be 
reflored ; and all the country ceded by Futty 
Sing to the Company was to be given up to 
the Mahrattas, upon their producing proofs 
by the letters and funnuds * of the Paifh- 
was, that Futty Sing was not authorized to 
make fuch a ceffion. Befides, 

All treaties made by the Bombay councl^ 
with Ragobah were declared to be annulled, asf 
was alfb that with Futty Sing. In confequence 
the Englifti troops were immediately to march 
within the limits of their prdidency. Ra- 
gobah was to difbaiid his army, and all his 
adherents but four (who were by name ex- 
cepted) were to have a full and free pardon ; 

* Sunnud is a grant under feal. 


if lie ritfefed CO ii^Msd^ the Biigiidi wercrtd 
p^e iiiift HI}! «£BAaaoev bonrvMiidiiafw* frQcnj 

Ite was to ii2Cire> a)^ train ef aldnilabd iabrier^' 
afiA It pi:op0mDtml juimber cX ibiDt, v^hidh; 
fti^ld be' paid ksy due FbooBikeEb gDvornm^^t* 
as well as two hundred domeAics.; mid be 
was to receive three lacl^ pf roupies a year, 
Vf msnthfy pa^afieids i huo: iw was to ixefide 
^ Cdop»gidnge, ^milinot dionge ius reiodfeBc^ 
without iicaacse fiom die Paifhiiraii The 
Bngiifki were AM >^ aidiDr stfHft in anif naaa- 
Her^ either Stagotcdtw my f&x&m SsSsmh^ 
ing the peac^ of the^ Mcd&asttA^ dommions : 
t^hefe cof^naitts isreie tt> be: mvitual ^. 

Thd^9f£^th&iaD<iteiaaliailiiciesio£ diss treaty 
which was ratified* at B^igaii, by the refo- 
lution of the ipajority ; the prefidency of 
ficoiQfba^ msde. very '^vem tftriiSbices ^2)n it, 
which they'&)i;wardi»i-to Bei^d* Ragobah 
looked m^cm^ ik sS' his imim; the £mjg of his 

* The^d^airtjqaos^oJtheCoa^paiiyflgrthii treftQr were 
in point of revenue as foUowetb ; 
' Salcet — — — 350,000 
: €ityiaiBii:porguixitib4lf Broflith 500^000 
. XIauiUfy a4^olaIpg:to:Bio9ch ^oo,oqo 

i^ioo^ooo L. 110,000 

at 2S. 

« < 



refickb^e at Coopergmgt iit otmfkfeitd tfs 
an knpt^onn»nt, ^4 the tboHfand Korft, 
and pro^ortiooal ]t)iii»l)er of Iniantry wfatdi 
wefe to he paid fcy the Btionah govtsrn- 
ffieiity as a guard f^t \]|>oti hkn, «k^er . to 
•keep him in that prifon^ or idielk^r hitn 
\o thek paymafters; and he decla^, tbaft 
it was better for him to Iry hi^ for- 
tunes Wi& the few frlis&ds that might re- 
main firm to him, than fUbmit to ^cept 
fiich tetjtas. He afleftcd, that ^cmfiding in 
the prdte^ion of the £ngliih liationi he had 
rejefted offers made to him by the Nizam : 
he defired that he might ^ceialce hk appeal to 
that nation, and in theisfte^ntiinet^eiheher 
in Bombay^ that his peribn might be ux 
'fafety.^ . 

There was fome reafon for ^Ragobah to 
have entertained hopes that his coiiidition 
woald have been bdtt^r than it proved in rhe 
treaty : for iM>t long before the conchifi^n 
of it Colonel Upt-en h6m feveral unto^vwd 
ci^eumftarices, fuppofcd the negotiation t«- 

^ tally bpoken off, and bad ^written hi$ opinidn 
to the S«pFeme Council , who^ coiieluding^l t 
ticftlly 4iyy -had ih <:onfequenGe written ^lo 

'%6ai^ff that they might in that caie .^.e 


112 A N A C C O U N T 

prepared to renew hoflilities, and had it^ 
written to Ragobab^ promiiing in that event 
an effedlual afliftanee to reinftate him. They 
had befides applied tp feveral other princes, 
Hyder, the Nizam> Modagee Bouncelo, Sin- 
dia, and Holcar^ to fupport his caufe; if 
they declined this, intreating them to remain 
neuter. At, the fame time they had concerted 
meafures with regard to Owde, and ordered 
a brigade to march to the frontiers of Corah, 
neareft to the Pafs of Culpy; but all this was 
put an end to by the figning of the treaty. 

Another accident which happened about that 
time helped to raife his hopes whilft it embar- 
rafled the minifters. There was a perfon of 
the Paiihwa race, called Subahi, or Subadah, 
the fbn of Chimnagee Oppah and brother of 
Badgeero^v, who was reported to have been 
killed in a battle near Panniput in 1 7 6 1 . 
A long time after a man appeared at Poonah, 
who allbrted he was that identical Subadah 
or Subahi : he produced many proofs of that 
identity, but the government at that time 
looking upon him as an impoftor, had con- 
fined him in thefortofRutnahGeriah. This 
man had now efcaped from thence, was 
joined by feveral chiefs with fome troops, 



and Row Dullop who commanded the Mah- 
ratta fleet, had declared for him ; he claimed 
to be regent either fingly or jointly with Ra- 
gobah. Thefe circumftances might induce 
Ragobah not yet to difband his troops ; a 
more fpecious reafbn was given, that he had 
not money to pay them. He followed our 
army with them when, they marched from 
Dubbay ; and now they had moved to the 
environs of Surat, it was thought neceflary, 
with the troops lately under Colonel Keat- 
ing*s command, to reinforce the garrifbns of 
Surat and Broach, left fome accident (hould 
happen from fuch a neighbourhood. Whether 
this excited a jealoufy that fomething was 
fcheming between the Englifti and Ragobah, 
or that the minifters were chagrined at not 
having him in their power, they complained 
to Colonel Upton, that the Bombay council 
had not reftored the places which were to be 
ceded by treaty ; that they had fupplied Ra- 
gobah with military ftores : adding, that Hy- 
der had purfued proper meafures in inforcing 
his treaties by arms ; and that if, in thefe 
particulars, fatisfadion was not given them 
they would carry fire and fword through all 
the Company's territories. The Bombay 
council denied thefe aflertiojis ; they faid, 

H that 


that as 'to the places ceded, they had fent or* 
ders to Surat and Broach to have the per* 
gtmnahs delivered up upon the appearance of 
perfons properly authorized to reteive them ; 
that no fuch had appeared ; that remon- 
finances had been made to Ragobah, but his 
inability to pay prevented his diibanding his 
forces: that their garrifoning Surat and 
Broach was an aft of neceffity , no way in?- 
coniiftent with peace, fince it prevented ac- 
cidents which might happen from the neigh- 
bourhood of the troops of either party ; that 
thejr were fb far from plotting to renew the 
war, that when the Nizam had lately of^ 
fered his aiiiftance to Ragobah , if the Englifh 
would engage not to take part with the 
Mahrattas, they had declined giving any 
fuch promife. They on their fide com- 
plained, that r>o good efFefts had yet ap- 
peared from the treaty, that to the great de- 
triment of the Englifli, no communication 
or intercourfe was jet permitted with the 
Mahratta dommions ; which prohibition was 
ib rigid that no perfons were permitted to 
come from the ndghbouring ports to Bom- 
bay, even to fell vegetables or other provi* 
lions ; that the Mahratta fleet had taken fix 
¥e£lels coining from Goa under Engliih co- 

O F B 6 M B A Y. 115 

lours which had been feparated by a ftorm 
from their convoy, and carried them into 
Gheriah ; that they had refufed fending a 
Vaquecl to Bombay to explain the reafon of 
this behaviour ; that it was not poflible to 
execute that part of the treaty which related 
to the country ceded by Futty Sing, be re- 
demanding this from Ragobah, upon this 
ground, that the conditions of the treaty 
with him wera not performed ; that he de- 
nied that the Poonah government had any 
right to demand them, or any thing to do 
tvith tbefe revenues, all that related thereto 
having been fully fettled in the year i759> 
when a divifion was made of the Guzurat 
country between Poonah and the Gwicawars. 
Thus each party ftarted difficulties^ and the 
treaty remained without any article of it being 
fully carried Into execution. A whole year 
was fperit in altercatiorts ind mutual com- 
plaints, when the year 1777 opened a new 

In the beginning of April a French fliip ar- 
rived at Collaby, a place at the entrance into 
the river of Ghoul, whicli landed feveral 
gentlemen, who fending notice of their arrival 
to Poonah, had not only leave given them to 

U 2 go 

116 A N A C C O U N T 

go thither, but were received in great pomp, 
there being an efcort ordered of twenty-five 
Arab fepoys with an elephant, twenty ca- 
mels, a palanquin, and feme horle. The 
perlbn who appeared to be chief among them 
ftyled himfelf Chevalier de St. Lubin, a man 
already well known in the Englifh fettle- 
ments in India for his intrigues* 

This man, on the i yth of April, Xvas re- 
ceived and had long conferences at Poroun- 
der. Mr. Moftyn who now refided at Poo- 
nah, on behalf of the Englifli remonftrated 
againft his admiffion to the Durbar, but he 
was anfwered that his prefent reception was 
in confequence of an application made two 
years and a half before., and that matters had 
then fo far advanced, that his reception could 
not be now refufed. The Ihip was brought 
vip to Choul, where her loading, confifting 
of artillery, fire-arms, copper, and cloth, was 
landed. St. Lubin affured the Durbar that 
two ffiips more would foon arrive, for which 
he demanded permiffion to v/inter in their 
harbours. On the 8th of May he had an 
audience of the Paifliwa, in which he pre- 
fented credentials from the king of France. 



It was much doubted, not only by the 
Englifh, but by the French refident in In- 
dia, whether St. Lubin had any commiffion 
of the kind he pretended, or was at all au- 
thorized : Monf. Belcombe, commandant at 
Pondicherry, refufed to acknowledge him as 
ambaflador, but the French agei^t at Surat 
anfwered his draughts : the perfons who ac- 
companied him fufpefted him. The truth, 
from the information of the principal among 
thefe who had fallen out with him, and took 
refuge with Mr. Moftyn the Englifh refident 
at Poonah, appeared to be, that St. Lubin 
had jointly with Monf. Dumas, an officer 
of rank in the Canada army laft war, and 
governor of the Ifle of France, obtained 
Monf. de Sartine's approbation and confent 
to a plan they had formed, which was, that 
St. Lubin (hould embark at Bourdeaux, on 
board a (hip called L^ Paix, as minifter ple- 
nipotentiary in the department of commerce 
to the Mahratta court ; Monf. Dumas was 
to embark at Breft on L'Indien at the head 
of 1500 men, which were to be joined by 
1000 to be (hipped on board La Paix, the 
whole 2500 to be under the command of 
Dumas, who was to have the department of 
war in the expedition, as St. Lubin had of 

H 3 comr 

xi« AN A C C O U NT 

commerce, and 500 more were to be lande<f 
at the Ifle of Franoe hf a private merchant 
fljip. Monf, dc Sartine aiSually vlfitpd the 
ports where the Ihips lay. St. Lubin, who 
wanted to be at the head of all, by his prir 
vate infinuations prevailed on him (unknown 
to Dumas, who then thought hito gone tq 
Lyons to take leave of his friends) to con-* 
fent that he fhould fail in a private Ihip frotn 
Bourdeaux,. that he might prepare all thing? 
for the reception of the force which was to 
follow under the command of Dumas ; this 
was to join the Mahrattas, after which they 
-were to flrike fome great ftroke. St. Lutj,ia 
had the powers of infinuatjon to a great 
degree; plaufible, aflbmuig, and re?kdy of 
^)eech, he gaye what he faid an airof truth, 
yet he was fuperficial, and ever ready tq 
iiicrifice truth and every thing to his in- 
tereft, even to the detriment of his own na-r 
tion. By his repreientations of the mighty 
advantages th^t would refult to France iq 
general, and in particular to thofe perfbn? 
who embarked with him, he carried out 
fome gentlemen from Bourdeaux, who fooi^ 
after thpir arriyal in India, faw they were 
the dupes of their credulity, and that thing? 
at Poonah were in reality very different frona 



what he had rcprellented them to be. By the 
lirfl: packet he fent to France, which was to 
go by Suxat^ they wrote to their friends 
what they iaw : thcile letters he opened, and 
from that time became their enemy ; and fo 
violent was his perfecution, that he prevailed 
on Nanah to order one ofihem, Monf. Cor- 
celle, to be put to death, after liaying him- 
fclf attempted to kill him : another perfoa 
was feized by miftake, and would have been 
thrown under an elephant's feet, had not a 
bramin found he was a Dane. The pro- 
tection granted to this Monf Corcelle and 
Mr^ Madget by Mr. Lewis, the then Eng- 
lifli refident, was made a fubje<^ of com- 
plaint, in the bickerings' which followed. 
For from that time the Englifli refident met 
with a treatment, which fully (hewed the ef- 
fed of St. Lubin's negotiations and promifes. 

Nanah Furneze, then the afting perfon 
in the Pailhwa's miniftry, entered into con- 
fidence with him on his undertaking to bring 
a confiderable military force to Poonah^ 
cpmpletely furnifhed with artillery and ftores; 
and an alliance v/as to be concluded between 
France and the Mahratta nation. That his 
promifes might be effbaed, Nanah gave hin\ 

H 4 ^^^ 


the free ufe of the port of Choul. At this 
time Saccaram and Nanah were the princi- 
pal minifters at Poonah ; Saccaram was old 
and infirm, and refiding in Porounder, afted 
moftly in the care of the perfon. of the infant 
Paifliwa. Nanah, about the age of fifty, 
aftive and enterprizing, afpired to the chief 
rule, likely to devolve upon him at the death 
of Saccaram, 

From the proteftion he had afforded Mr* 
Bolts before the arrival of St. Lubin, and his 
connexions fince with that minifter, it is 
apparent his difpofitions were not favourable 
to the Englifli. Another perfon, who might 
be looked on as a minifler at Poonah, was 
Morabah, nephew of Nanah, a man of 
great influence and ability, and alfo of great 
prudence ; till that time avoiding interfer- 
ence in thofe troubled fcenes ; inclined to 

Sindia and Holcar who hold the country 
extending from Guzurat to the banks of the 
Jumma, originally paid a tribute, but in the 
prelent weaknefs of government are grown 
independent. A rnoiety of Guzurat and Sal- 
cet, BafTein, and the country of Broach, be- 

OF B O M B A Y, 121 

longed to the Paifhwa family ; the Bouncelo 
family poflefs Berar and Nagpoor in perfeft 

The intereft of St. Lubin ^t Poonah was 
an alarming circumftance. It was fo high 
with Nanah, that, in order to prevent any 
opportunity the Englifli refident might have 
of procuring intelligence, he prevailed on 
him to place guards upon his houfe. This 
was not the only infult ; on his complaining 
of this treatment, he was anfwered, that all 
Europeans fliould leave Poonah; that if the 
Englifh defired to have an agent there, a Car-» 
coon (that is an inferior perfon) would an- 
fwer the purpoie, and Nanah exprefsly de- 
fired he would inform the Bombay prefidency 
of this. This meflage was highly refented 
by them, and a difavowal of it infifted on, 
but in vain ; on the contrary, the reftraint 
was increafed. 

Other circumftances concurred to fhew 
that fome fchemes againft the Englifli were 
forming. The French agents and chiefs were 
buiy every where. General Belcombe had a 
^xty-four gun fliip ready, in which he was 
to be carried to the cpafl ,of Malabar, with 

a com- 


a company of Europeans^ a large fuite^ and 
ibme arnas ; Mahi was the pkco named, anii 
it was given out he was only going to vifit 
that fettlement ; but the real view was to 
bring to maturity the plans formed between 
St, Lubin and Nanah ; this appeared fully 
by the proceedings which followed* 

The diflenfions among the minifters at 
Poonah were no\Y confiderable, Mr. Moftyn, 
the Englifh refident there, had for ibmc time 
perceived the feeds of a revolution. On the 
loth of December 1777, the council of 
Bombay received advice that Saccaram, Mo- 
rabah, Butchaba a man of confiderable in- 
fluence, together with Holcar, had confe-- 
derated to remove Nanah from his erajdoy- 
ment, and reftore Ragobah, provided the 
council of Bombay would join them, and 
with a military efcort condud: him to Poo- 
nah. That each of thefe chiefs had the com- 
mand of 10,000 horfe, and that Sindia, who 
was then abfent at the diftance of fixty leagues 
from Poonah, was fuppofed to be in the 
lame intereft. At this time Furkia, the 
commander of the Mahratta forces for the 
minifters, was on the bonders of the Cania-t 
tic^ where he had invaded. Hyder Ally, lyho 


/ ^ 


{n two engagements had totally defeated him. 
^nd Raja Ram, the nominal fovereign of 
the Mahratta empire, died thp beginning of 

The council of Bombay thought great ad^ 
vantage in the prcfent circumftance might be 
reapeii from this confederacy ; but as by the 
treaty of Porounder Ragobah was totally cx- 
cludedjit was judged proper that Saccaram, who 
was the principal aftor in that treaty, fhould, 
jointly with the other confederates, fend the 
propofal in writing and under feal ; this done, 
they proniifed the concurrence defired, The 
1 2 th of December they advertized the Su- 
prenae Council of the whole matten The 
governor general looked upon this as a fa- 
vourable opportuni^v of counterafting the 
operations of St. Lubin, and therefore pro- 
pofed upon thpfe conditions to authorize the 
Bombay council to conclude fuch an agree- 
inent, and promife them affiftance in men 
fjnd money; the ^^efolution pafled, and ten 
lacks of roupies in bills; were immediately 
forwarded to Bonibay ; and that council was 
exprefsly enjoined to adhere to the requifition 
that Saccaram and the other peribns (hould 
fend the propofal ii^der their j(eals and figpa- 


124 A N A C C O U N T 

tures, and by no means to aft, unlefs that 
condition was complied with. This was done 
in February 1778. 

As it was judged that the council of Bom- 
bay were not of ftrength fufficient fingly to 
carry fo great a defign into execution, nor to 
withftand the efFedt of St. Lubin's intrigues, . 
Ihould they fucceed fo far as to introduce a 
French army into the Mahratta ftate, it was 
thought prudent to have a force at hand' 
ready to acSt as occafion fhould require. The 
country between the Ganges and Bombay 
and Poonah was how well known, and no 
more thought impaflable for an army ; the 
governor general therefore propofed to fend 
a detachment under Colonel Leflie, an of- 
ficer of ability, through the inland country 
towards Bombay, which might be at hand 
to a6t as occafion fhould require. It can- 
fifted of fix battalions of fepoys and one 
company of native artillery, which were 
to be joined by a regiment of cavalry and a 
body of horfe from the province of Owde ; 
thefe were all to afiemble at Kulpee, near the 
Jumna, and from thence proceed, through 
the countries of Eoondelchund and Berar, to*, 
wards Bombay, 






OF B O M B A y. t^^ 

Colonel Leflie hid ferved in the htc-^s^at 
under General WqlfCf and by Ijis ;;eal aii4 
v£dvity had fo far recoaunended himfelf to 
the favour of that fuperior judge of military 
merit, that he was among the few dii^in^ 
guifhed friends to whom the general had by 
his will given honourable tokens of hi^ >re** 
gard. This reputation he had fupported 10 
the courfe of his fervice in India^ he had 
particularly dliHnguifhed himfelf in the Rp^ 
hilla war by a judicious attention and unre^ 
mitting exertion in the duty of qporter^ 
mafter-general, though part of thei tia>e la* 
bouring with the gout< Hisinflru^ooswcr^f 
*^ To proceed- by the moft pra^cabld xoqte 
to Bombay 9 or fuch other. parts as he ihould 
be direfted to by the committee of that pre-^ 
fidency ; he was to prefer the route through 
the Boondelehund country and .provinoe of 
.Berar, but if refufed by that Rajah, Qot tp 
.periif):, but according to his judgment and 
the refult of his enquiries vary his roiijE?^ 
making it his firfb care to reconcile the chiefs 
to his pafTage through their countries , but at 
all events to profecute his march, from th« 
^beginning of which be was to obey fuch 
orders from Bombay as were not contrary to 

the tenor of his inftruAions. \He was ad-^ 

■ * 

vifed of the feveral letters written to tte 


ii6 AN 'A-dc t) U k ^ 

* W^. Elliot was brotto tt) the i5rcfent Sir Gilbert El- 
liot, anS* was a y^uog man of furprizing knowledge, abi- 
lity, and diligence ; unfortunately for the ^Company and 
his country, he dred before he tdoid cXccdte his coib- 
c s^iTioQ* "■ . 

chiefs,- and particularly the Rajah of Bei^ar^ 
to proctire paflpbrtfe^atrd fuppiies of pr6vi- 
fions ; and it was recornniended to him tc^ 
cultivate a good underftandin^ ^^ith them; 
particularly tlie latter ; he Was authorifed tof j 

life every expedient neceflary for the fafety 
and liipply of the detachment withbut in- 
fringing the peace fubfifting with the Mah- 
tatta ftate, and to adhere to the trfeaty of 
Porounder: the ftridteft order and difcipUhe 
'Was recommended, and every attention to | 

preferve aiiy poffible irtiputation of blarney . 
iior was he ta aflt ofFenfively, even at the re- 
quifitiori of the Bombay Council, unlefs they 
Ihould declare that there waS a6iially a war, 
and he was to advertife them as frequently 
as poffible of his progrefs*** 

Thefc itiftrudlidrts Cofrefpdhded with thofti 
given to Mr. Alexander Elliot*, who fdr 
Ills talents in negotiation, was uiianimoufly 
chofen' an Ambafikdor to the Rajah of Beraf, 

' with whom the governor general had long 

•kept a correfpondencci 


The revenues of this Raja amount to one 
hundred and fifty lacks yearly, and he is at 
the head of 30,000 horfe. 

Modagee, related by blood to the Rajas of 
Poonah, had been adopted by Sahoo the pre- 
deoeilbr of Ram Raja, and looked to the fo- 
vereignty of the Mahratta ftate at the death 
of Sahoo; but Ballagee, then Paifliwa, de- 
feated tHis fucceiHon, and raifed Ram to the 
throne : Ragogee,, the father of Modagee, to 
aflert bis fon's right, marched with a confider- 
able force to Poonah ; but the Paifliwa found 
means to appeafe him by conceffions of great 
value ; the moft coufiderable was the inde- 
pendence of all the Bouncelo pofleffions. In 
the year i 773 Shabagee, one of the fons of 
Ragogee, being then chief of Berar, had fent 
a Vaqueel to Calcutta with an offer of al- 
liance. Mr. Haftings, then prefident of that 
government, propofed conditions fimilar to 
thofe which had been granted tp Sujah Dou- 
lah the Nabob of Owde. Shabagee being 
flain, this negociation dropped, and the change 
of government at Calcutta, by the forming 
g£ the Supreme Council, deftroyed the pro- 
bability of renewing it ; yet the Vaqueel was 
by Mr. Haftings kept fpme time in hopes 


1^8 A N A C C O U N T 

that there yet might ofier an opportunity 
of doing it with eiFeft, but he had lately- 
lent him home. Modagee, when fettled, 
fent him back to Calcutta with a tender of a 
friendly alliance; and Mr. Haftings, fbre- 
leeing that the troubles in the Weft of India 
might draw the Englifh to take fome part ia 
them, looked on this as a circumftance which 
might in fbme event prove a fortunate connec- 
tion. On the determination offending Colonel 
I^eflie's detachment, he wrote to Modagee^ 
defiring a paffage through his country. The 
anfwer was moft friendly ; he not only con- 
lented, but promifed to fend to the banks of 
the Neirbuddah a quantity of grain and other 
necefTaries for the Englifh army, and a body 
of horfe to efcort them through his territory; 
and added, that he had written letters to Co- 
lonel Leflie to advife him of this. The efcort 
and ftores were accordingly fent. 

The fituation of affairs convinced the go- 
vernor general more and more of the necef^ 
fity of having fbme refburce to counterba- 
lance this intereft of the French ; it could 
not be doubted but that if matters in Europe 
proceeded to a war, the flames of it muft 
fpread to India, and the nation which found 


O F BO M B aV. 1^9 

Itielf ftrongeft and beft prepared would ftrike 
ibme flroke againft the other. Bombay and 
the pofleflions of the Englifh in that quarter 
were the parts moft liable to isax attack ; the 
directors had warned the Supreme Council of 
this ; every ctrcumftance warranted their con* 
jedure. Theie conjectures were but too well 
founded; and fortunately the governor ge^ 
neral had fomething yet fironger to decide 
him. Mn Elliot, in his return from £ng* 
land to Iiidiay had pafled through Paris, where 
he had the opportunity of learning the real 
iituation of things from peribns thoroughly 
iaftru£):ed ; he was fully informed of thofe 
ileps which inevitably muft bring on a war. 
He knew the whole progrefs of them ; this 
he communicated to the governor gener4l9 
who by this means faw his conje^res be- 
come a certainty. 

This made him turn his thoughts flill 
ntore ftrongly to Berar, and he relblved to 
make an alliance with the Raja Modagee, 
at leaft defeniive ; but which might, accord-- 
ing to the occafions fumilhed by events, be 
improved to an ofienfive one. It was for 
purpoib that Mr. Elliot was ohoien to 

I go 


go to the Durbar of Modagee ; his inftruc- 
tioiis were to the effe£t jfoUowing : 

* He was to form his judgment on the ac- 
tual ftate of that government, the intelligence 
he ^uld receive from the neighbouring 
ilates, anx) particularly the advices from Bom- 
bay. and regulate U procee^ngs accord- 
ingly; and as in the feveral matters he 
might treat of, iome were in their nature 
fuch, that what was ftipuliated muft be per- 
manent, he was not to coiKlude any articles 
concjs:rning thefe without having oommuni- 
cated them to and received the approbation 
of the Supreme Council ; but thofe where 
the proviiions wero only temporary and re^ 
quired ingim^diate decifion, he might conclude 
wdthout fuch reference. 

That as the primary intention was a per- 
petual de&nfive^ alliaftce, to have mutual in- 
terefls and reciprocal confidence muft there- 
fore be« the grpund-work : on thefe principles 
he fhouid ftipulate, 

I . That a mutual friendfliip (hould^ be 
eftablifhed between the two govern*^ 

ments ; 

OF B O M fiA Y. 131 

hients ; that the friends of one (hould 
be the friends of the other^ and the ene- 
mies of one the enemies of the other. 

a. That a certain number of troops fhould. 
be kept tip i*rithin our frontier in the 
ncareft and moft convenient fituation to 
his dominions ; that a monthly fubfidy 
proportionable to the expence Ihould be 
paid by him»-^This article was to con- 
tain a power to alter the numbers, dr 
fcven decline dr withdraw the whole, 

g; That on his part a body of cavalry 
fhould be kept up for the fervice of the 
govenihient of Bengal^ who (hould not 
be the native militia accuftomed to 
.J)lunder5 but regular troops; that the 
pay of thcfe fhould be only when em- 
ployed-^— This article was not to be in* 

^uch were hiis Inftrtiftioris as to the aN 
ticles upon tnatters permanent in their na- 
ture ; as to Others which were temporary and 
required decifion and imrhediate activity, the 
grounds on which he was to 'regulate hiacon* 
duft) were as follow : 

I a The 

13? A N A C C O U N T 

The refidence of St. Lubin at Poonah, and 
the intereft he had cultivated with the mi- 
iiifters, made it likely that fome ftroke 
might be expeded from thence, and as the 
probability was now that war exifted between 
the French and Englifh, Bombay muft have 
been the firil to feel the efFedts of it. ' De- 
iigns yet greater might be in agitation, and 
an attack upon Bengal from the internal parts 
of India, with the alfiftance of the Mah- 
ratta force, was to be apprehended. The 
Bombay prelidcncy were authorized to affift 
in carrying on the plan communicated to 
them in December laft of excluding Nanah 
from the government, and reftoring Rago- 
bah ; the detachment fent under the com- 
mand of Colonel Leflie was formed to fecond 
thefe endeavours; but the undertaking had 
failed in the principal part; the change 
among the minifters was efFefted, but Rago* 
bah not reftored. Thus deprived of the re- 
fource hoped for in the friendfliip of Ra- 
gobahy and aiming at obftrufting the French 
intereft and countera<5ling their ichemeSi and 
it being dangerous without the fupport of a 
powerful alliance for the detachment to pro^ 
ceed on its firft deftination, it muft have 
been a moft defirable thing to have a mutual 



intereft, and to join our forces with thofe of 
Modagee. This was founded on very good 
reafbhs ; his dominions lie between thofe of 
the government of Bengal and the country de* 
pendent on the Paifhwa, ^nd border on them 
and the country of the Nizam, There muft 
exift a natural jealoufy between his family 
and the government of Poonah : their ani* 
mofity had been increafed by many reciprocal 
a£ts of violence. Modagee had ftrong pre- 
teniions to the fucceffion of the Raja Ram : 
he had a natural enemy in the Nizam. The 
fituation of all afHirs in thofe parts was there«r 
fore in the firft place to be learned. 

If the council of Bombay had not entered 
into new engagements with Ragobah or 
with the party governing at Poonah which 
clafhed with the following inftrudlions, and 
tliat a French force was at Poonah, or that 
Mr. St. Lubin wa^ ftill there, or that no cir» 
cumftance offered to contradift what was aU 
ready known on that head^ a dire£t union 
with Modagee for carrying on a war againft 
the Mahrattas at Poonah, was to be offered : 
in all this great difcretion mufl be ufed ; 
the principal aim being to defeat the French 
combination, to prevent their receiving af» 

13 fiflanpe 


finance in their a|ttac|c upon Bombay, ai^d tq 
eftablifh g conne^ftion be^wgeu- the |ingli£b> 
and the Mahratta ftate, tp infure their liipr 
port againft the French^ or any other nation 
with >vhom the Engli(h alight \xi at war. 

The negotiation therefore was to be fuT 
fpendcd until through the infornaation of the 
Bombay Council, or of Mr- Moftyh the re- 
fident at Poojiah, the nature of their epg^ger 
mcnts ihould be fuUy known; there mu ft 
he an entire cpnforjijity to their jneafures ; 
no ofFenfive plan whatfpever muft be adopted 
which could in any manner counterad them ; 
a defenfive one was, Md ever to be, the main 


The Raja of Berar is a fovereign and in- 
dependent power. If the French iiitereft with 
tlie Poonah goyernnient was diffolvcd, and 
no hoftUe intention againft the Compai^y fub-r 
fifted, the treaty concluided at Porounder with 
the Paiftwa Nvrein remained in full forcer 
and np. epgagement contrary to it pauft be 
entered into : but this treaty was not contra- 
di^ed by a defenfive alliance with Berar, nor 
pyen by an ofFenfive one which regarded other 
^owpr& ; uftr by the |>recaiuioi> p^ a ftatipnary 



force on the frontier. In return, Modagee 
might expeft from the Company to be af- 
fifted in afferting his right to the Rajafliip, 
and in recovering the places conquered from 
his family by the Nizam ; the latter being 
foreign to our purpofe therefore nothing 
was to be concluded on that head unlefs an 
abiblute neceility of it was apparent ; and 
then the ftipulation muft have been confined 
to the places taken by him iince the death of 

If the Nizam had joined the French or 
their allies at Poonah, then the terms pro* 
pofed by Modagee.were to be liftened to. If 
the profpeft in the fucceffion to the Raja- 
Ihip was fair and probable, it would be right 
to treat upon that matter ; our end in it 
would be anlwered by the exclufion of French 
influence : the poiitive advantage on his fide 
intitled us to demand ibme return ; as the 
full reimbtirfement of any charges the Cotrh 
pany ihould be put to, the confirmation of 
all the cefiions made to the Bombay council 
by Ragobah and Futty Sing, and to the Su*- 
preme Council of Bengal by the treaty of 
fofounder ; in theie matters thc council of 

I 4 Bombay 

136 AN A C C O U N T 

Bombay muft guide* No territory on |ho 
Beugal fide of Jndia wa? deftr^, 


Notipe to be fent to the council of Bombay 
and to Colonel Jjeflie of wjiat (hoyld be con- 

{ie was to take fpecial care that no part 
ihould be taken in the difturbances annoying 
the Bouncelo family. 

Whatever agreements Ihould be entered 
into, were not to be reftrained to the perfon of 
Modagee, but extend to his fucceflbrs. 

Thefe inftruftions (hew the apprehenfion 
of the danger, and what remedy was conceived 
to be the moft efficacious. There was; nq 
iKceHity of changing the fituation pf the de- 
tachment froni the Bengal fide of the Ner- 
budda, or altering its deftination, till the 
{late of affairs was fully known* It was at 
hand to a£t according to the meafures whici> 
(hould be concerted with Modagee. If the 
firft icheme failed, it was ready for the fe? 
pond ; if they both failed, it was near our 
frontier. When once the news pf a wv 
V^ith France Ihould arrive, it n^uft decide 
>vbat meafures were abfblutely neceflary. At; 
"' all 


all revents that influence in the Mahratta ftate 
was to be deftroyed ; for if once St* Lubia 
could bring troops and ftores to Poonah, what- 
ever party he efpoufed muft command obe- 
dience ; and in that cafe Bombay would not 
be the only objeft, the province of Owde 
muft be the fcene of ravage, and probably 
they might extend their views lb far as to 
^ifpute the pofieflion of Bengal *. 

Small is the dependence which in thofe 
pa(es could be had on Bombay. Some other 
refburce muft be found: Modagee, by his 

. ^ The foUowtog Incident ll|ew$ how juft were thefe ap- 
prehenfions. Mr. Elliot in his journey overtook ^Monf. 
Chevalier, chief of Chandernagore, at Cuttack on his way 
to Poonah, and prevaikd on the Naib to affid in feizing 
him. Among bis papers was fonqd a letter frpm General 
feefcombe, dated Pondicherry, iz July 1778, relating to 
the fituation of affairs between the £ngliQi and French oa* 
ttons, to which was this remarkable poftfcript : 

^' It would be proper for me to apprize tjie Mahrattas 
at Cuttack andBerarof the difpofition of the Englifh' 
refpe&ing g war, which appears to be inevitable ; and 
*^ that I (hopld write to thpf(S at Poonah, that this is the 
^* moment to unite, in order to crufli that ambitious oa- 
f tion, who hath already met with confiderable iofles in 
f ' America, which they feek to repair by fubj^fling all the 
^* princes of India." 

Other letters intercepted by the Bombay council /hewed 
the reality of the French deflgni, and how much they ^t 
that time everted their whole, powers to bring them to 





138 ANA e C O U N T 

iituadon^ by his interefts^ and by his ineli« 
mtio&s^ was the moft probable one. 

The advantages ariiing from this fcheme 
muft be great. A body of troops kept on 
our frontier in the ihanner propoiled, increafes 
our force without any expence to ui. The 
Berar cavalry is the beft in India : the Na- 
tion of the troops muft caufe a concourfe of 
people in thofe parts , which may bring into 
cultivation that region, now negleded, though 
the foil is good and capable of fertility. An 
inland communication with Bombay and Ma* 
dras will be opened , and a barrier will be 
formed on that^de of our poflfeffions. 

But a yet greater advantage follows this 
!flation : Nangpoor * is the center of the pen- 
infula; the army may thencQ convenient-^ 
ly reach the dominions of the furrounding 
princes, and a£t either for their defence or to 
their annoyance. They muft Bfehold our 
power and the poffeffions ceded to u^ with 
jealoufy, which our European epemy h 
watchful to improve. The lofs of the north-. 
crn circars muft afie6k the Nizam ; he was 
then in league with the French and the Poq-» 

* The capital of Bcrv. 


O F B O M B AY. 139 

ppij miniftry j bis brother JBa^jalet JuBg, who 
hgd for h}$ life the poGkffk^ of the circar of 
iGfontpHr, between the territory of the Na- 
bob of Arcot a»4 that of Ma:tulipatam, had 
gt this hovtr five hun<}r9d French in hia ier- 
vice, which all the repreientatioDS and en- 
deavours of the council of Madras had proved 
ineffeftual to remove from that country. No 
emplacement of o^r troops could be fo for- 
ndidable to thofe princes as that near Berar. 
The harp inlpeftion of the map of India 
^hews the importanqe of the fituation of that 
province in regard to the three great powers 
who bound pur pofleffions. The prince of 
Berar is our natural ally ; he hath no inter*- 
courfe with France : the firft ftfep of the Poo- 
nah alliance mui(l have been an invafion of 
biafterritory to force him to lend his ailiflance 
to their attack of Bengal. 

The tr^de of this province is another very 
material article : it produces the heft cotton 
in India, which is fpun into fine thread, and 
exported in that ftat^ to the dominions of the 
Copcipany. The duties arq at prefent high ; 
but even under this difadyantage thefe manur 
faftu rest yield thegreateft prqfit of any brought 
^Ofix JndiA. The Put<;b^ Wl^^ ifiK9y fend 


I40 A N' A C C O U N T 

great quantities of copper into Berar ; this 
article may be turned in our favour. The 
climate fome months in the year is compara- 
tively cold ; this may produce a demand for 
woollens. Many other advantages there may 
be which commerce itfelf will bring forth. 

Another revolution in the Poonah mini- 
ftry demohftrated the afcendency of French 
influence. On the 25thof Auguft letters 
were received at Calcutta from Bombay, men- 
tioning that Nanah had recovered his rank 
and influence, upon which Morabah had ap- 
plied to them for immediate afliflance to con- 
duct Ragobah to Poonah, fending articles fub- 
fcribed by him and Butchabah; Holcar 
agreeing to this by a feparate paper under his 
hand, that they approved of the propdial, 
but had deferred afting in confequence to the 
month of September, that they might in the 
mean tim6 be authorized by the Supreme 
Council, or receive directions from Loudon, 
The anfwer authorized them to proceed, pro* 
vided what they fhould undertake did no^ 
endanger their fafety, or prove contrary tp 
any engagements which Mr. Elliot might 
have entered into with Modagee. This an* 
iwer was tranfmitted through him, who was 

OF BOMB AY. 141 

at the fame tme to let them know the ftate 
of thp negotiation. Thus by the mutual 
correfpondence which muft arife from the 
obfervation of his inftrudtions with regard to 
that prefidency, it was probable that on ei- 
ther (ide nothing could be done but what was 
beft adapted to the flate of afiairs in the Weil 
of India. 

Before the detachment marched the go- 
vernor general, to prevent any danger which 
might happen by JBengal being left open to 
a French invafion, had taken the following 
precautions : a naval force was prepared ; 
two fhips of forty guns each had already 
joined Sir Edward Vernon, and there re- 
mained in the mouth of the Ganges two fri- 
gates and three cruifers, under the command 
of an excellent officer*, which, joined to 
what was already in that region, muft keep off 
zay armament of our enemies, and cleanfe 
that fea- from pirates which annually infeft it : 
and a fupply of troops in the room of that 
detachment was provided. The army was 
augmented with , nine battalions of fepoys : 
the companies had before been augmented to 
eighty rank and file : thefe might upon oc- 


' * Captain John Rlchardfon who had ferved with credit 
ia the late war. 


144 A N A G G O U N 1^ 

2. That a fpecific fom be ftipulated for' 
the military charges incurred by this 

3» That Baflein and its diftrid be ceded 
ih perpetuity to the Company. 


4* An additional grant of territory adjacent 
to Baffin and Bpmbay, in exchange for. 
Broach, the lands ceded by Futty Sing^ 
ajid the PergunAahs of Hanfood, Aftn 
mood, and El^rborah. 

5 . That no European fettlement fliall be 
allowed in the Mahratta dominions, 
without the confent of the Supreme 
Couticil ; but this to be only extended to 
the enemies of Britain. 

6. That a fupply of ten lacks of roupies be 
immediately granted to the prefidency 
of -Bombay for the fupport of their en- 

And at the fame time, that they might be 
prepared for all events, requeftedthe prefidency 
of Madras to have two hundred Europeans, 
half a company of artillery , and a battalion of 


O F B O M B A Y. ,145 

fepoys ready to march to Anjengo, thence to 
be traniported to Bombay, if requi^p. 

Saccaram was backward in putting his 
name to this inftrument, though he a^ed 
privately with the confederates. Morabah 
would have taken the whole upon himielf, 
and engaged, that if the £ngli(h and he un« 
derflood each other^ he would fettle the go^ 
vernment in a month^s time ; but the Board 
in(i{):ed ; and this kept back the conclufiou 
of a treaty between them. 

The difpofitions of the ieveral powers ot 
the Mahrattas and their armies in January 
1778, were as follows: Modagee Bouncelo 
was at Lacanwady Gaut, thirty cofs eaftward 
of Aurengabad ; Holcar was at his own vil* 
kge Banbgam, with 12,000 horfe, and five 
or fix thouland Praeds *, refufing any, corre* 
ipohdence with Nanah. Sindia endeavour- 
ing to raife contributions on Janogee Patan* 
cars jaghire, near Rinietpore, had occafioned 
a ikirmilh, in which Janogee was killed. 
Furkia had been again defeated by Hyder, 
and retreated to Panchmach, a place belong- 
ing to the Nizam, on the north bank of the 
Kriflna, in hopes of receiving affiftance from 

* Foot foidlers and Hingers. 

J^ Downfa, 


146 A N A C C O U N T 

t)own^ one of Nizam's generals, whoxvas 
encan:i^H about twelve cbfs from him* 'Hy- 
dcr Ally, in purfuit of him had croffed to 
the north of Jongebodra. The Nizam, though 
firoiigly Iblicited to join the Poonah force 
agahifthim, refyfed, unlefs the forts CrfAfhllr 
and Armadanagur, formerly promifed, werd 
delivered to him. Fiirkia was fbon after y^t 
more unfortunate ; for Badgee Punt Burwa, 
joined by feveral other Mahratta chiefs, at- 
tacked and routed his army, taking three 
elephants, his cannon, and plundering his 
Buzar*, he efcaping only with five hundred 
horfe. Thefe different events, and particu- 
larly the laft, were fatal to Nanah : his re- 
fource was to go to Porounder, in hopes, by 
the means of Saccaram, to perfuide Sindia 
to go to the affiftance of Furkia ; who, far 
from receiving affiftance from Downfa, had 
been by him defired to remove, from Panch-^ 
taach, and had retreated to Serapore twenty 
cofs north of Kriftna: his fcattered army 
there joined him, and he foon again ap- 
proached to Downfa, ftill retaining hopes of 
affiftance, notwithftanding his inclinations ' 
muft have been againft him, as he had a 
daughter contraded to Tippoo Sahed the Ibu 

^ Buzar or Baxar,. a noarker. 

F S O M B A Y, 147 

©f H3rdfer'*. But thefe hopes were kept up 
by his knowing that a Vaqueel from the Ni- 
zam had been lent to Poonah^ The refult 
of Nanah^s conference with Saccaram was 
a reiblution to endeavour by all means to 
^ocure the affiflance of Holcar and Sindia 
to Furkia, and to fend him money and 
3000 men. Shortly after, in the month of 
March, he was again filrpriated, and his 
whole force was reduced to 300D, with 
whom he retreated along the Krillna towards 

Thus the whole of the Mahratta ftate was a 
ieene of confufion : each chief folely intent 
Upon his privater (Soncenis, watching to ad- 
Vance his own iaterdAs as occafion ihould 
offer, and all in continual diftruft of each 
other. Through all this chaos the party 
againft Nanah continued their fcheme of 
changing the .government, and their inter- 
courfe with Mr. Moftyn ; but Saccaram ftill 
^delayed his fignature to the requeft of affift- 
ance from Bombay. At laft Mr. Moflyn 
was affured by the confederates, that on the 

^ Whether this aliiance or other caafes made him the 
objeft of the Nlznm's fupkionSy be was wichia a Ihorc 
time after taken off. 

K 2 a;zd 

148 A N A C C O U N T 

2 id of March MorabaK, Butcbaba^ and Hol- 
car would move, that In five or fix days 
they would appear on.Porounder plain with 
25,000 men ; that Saccaram waited for that 
event fully to declare hirafelf, and would 
give Mr. Moftyn entire fatis6i6tion ; that 
they (hould feize and inxprifoa Nanah ; that 
Morabah would write to the prefident, and 
alfo to Ragobah, which letters fliould be ac- 
companied with the Bui Bundar, which is 
an oath of fidelity ; that Holcar wouW alio 
write to Ragobah. 

On the >26th about rioon Morabah and 
forne other chiefs encamped on the oppofite 
fide of the river with 10,000 horfe* A de- 
tachment of fifty horfe entered Poonah, 
twenty-five of which marched to the palace, 
the others patrolled the ftreets, direfting the 
inhabitants in Ragobah's name, to keep quiet- 
ly to their occupations, and promifing &fety 
fi^r perfon and eflfefts to thofe who fliould do 
fo. An hour after Morabah arrived and went 
dire£tly to the palace, where, paying his re- 
Ipefts to Perwetty Bah *, he received from 


' ttr 

Perwetty Bah wag the wife of Subadah, who had 
becB coafined with t&e widow of NaroD ia the fort of Po- 



her the fiq^aw of Duan *, he began by 
placing his own people in the room of thofe 
who were the guard, whom he difmifled :, 
the houfe of the Duan who had been ap- 
pointed by Nanah had fome of thofe new 
guai'ds placed upon it. He then publickly 
received the compliments due to his flation, 
after which he returned to his tents on the 
other fide of the river, where he was to meet 
Holcar, who had advanced to the diftance 
of three cofs ; Saccaram lay diftant about fix 
cofs. They were all to join in the morn- 
ing, when their whole force would amount 
to 30,000, and march to Pprounder, whence 
they were to fend a perfbn of confequence to 
Bombay, who (hould attend Ragobah to 
Poonah. On the 30th of March an agent 
arriyed at Bombay, fent by them, who in 
their name defired that no time fhould be 
loft in fending Ragobah to Poonah ; but no 
particular propofals were mentioned. The 
Bombay council, in {o turbid an appearance, 
could not determine what direftion to give 
minifter at Poonah ; they left his conduft there 

rounder, and after the death of Naron's Widow, had the 
care of the infant Paiihwa. It is not eafy to conceive how 
(he came to be fo intrufted. 
'^ Duan is treafureri and principal mminer. 

K 3 to 


to his own difcrctidn, and hi^ regard for tfe^ 
interefts of the Company ; but at the fame 
time that they might be" ready to profit by 
any events yfavorable, and which led to de^ 
clfion, they determined to prepare three hun- 
dred Englifli infantry, two companies of ar^^ 
tillery lafcars, with a fuitable field- train^ 
Colonel Egerton was to command fhis body, 
next in conimand to him wa3 Colonel Cock-r 

The aipeS: of affairs at Poonah now pro- 
mifed the eftablifliment of Ragobah. On the 
28 th of March Nanah was at the foot of the 
hill of Porounder with 5000 men. All hi§ 
endeavours to enpreafe this force were vain ; 
he was therefore compelled to fubmit to ac- 
cept conditions from the party of Saccaranii 
and Morabah ; he agreed to accept an infe- 
rior office* Saccaranj and Morabah were to 
be guarantees for his life and treafures. In 
tthis agreement no mention was madfe of Ra- 
gobah. The effeiQ: of this union was that 
Nanah*s political fyftem gained ground i Mr, 
Moftyn found that Morabah was not \villing 
to abandon Baflein; and he wrote to the 
foupcil, that Ragobab rmift not depend ot^ 
^ forcf to receive him there, that it poulcj 

OF B O M;]^ A Y, 151 

be.lj^d 01^}? from Bombay^ and Ihouldcon- 
&G: of at le^fl tyco battalions, with a fuitablei 
train! of] artillery. 

Ra^bah, on the other hand^ giving full 
fcope to his hopes, and (hutting his eyes to 
all dlfBcultiies, was extremely preffing for 
his departure. The council remonftrated 
againfl this impatience, infifting that it was 
not proper to move, until a regular^ invi* 
tation, fuch as had at fird been promifed, 
fhould have come from Poonah. To this he 
anfwered, that his appearance would bring 
matters to a conclufion ; that for want of it 
his partisans would imagine that the Engliih 
were backward in his caufe, which muft di- 
fpirit them, and might tempt them to make 
terms with his enemies ; that this was a 
criiis not to be neglefted; that, added to 
fome force which he had at Culwa oppofite 
Tanna, the troops that could be furnilhed 
from Bombay were fully fufficient* to com- 
plete his re-eftabli(hment. He afleiited to 
confirm the treaty of Surat, and expreflcd 
his wiflies to enter into an alliance offenfive 
and defenfive, which fhould be bound by the 
flrongeft ties : he promifed to grant Pergun* 
nahs contiguous to Bombay, for a fecurity of 

K 4 P^)> 





pgiyment of the troops. At the lame time 
be defired that the Britifh commander fhould 
have orders from the council not to inters 
meddle with his government ; and he inti-r 
mated that all the grants of territory yielded 
by his enemies to the Nizam and other pow-» 
ers (hpuld be refumed. 

The Mahratta chiefs ftill continued in 
their encampments* Mr. Moftyn, on the 
I oth of April was requefted by a particular 
letter from the Durbar, fealed with the great 
leal, to go to that near Currich, where he was 
met by Morabah, who told him that Gopal 
Naique Tufnbackar (who was the brother of 
Butchaba) was tp be fent immediately to 
Poonah, and requefted him to meet them 
at Nanah's camp near Porounder hill, where 
they were then going He acquiefced, and 
was received with due ceremony, and marks 
of regard in a public tent, and introduced to 
the Durbar, where were prefent Saccaram, 
Morabah, Nanah, Butchaba, and feveral 
other chiefs, particularly Gopal Naigue Turn- 
backer. Great civilities were fhewn him ; 
but a final fettlement with the Company vva^ 
put off to Ragobah's arrival, Saccaram re- 
el uefted tl'at Mr. Moftyn would accompany 



the perlbn they were to fend to Bombay ; 
and upon his enquiring into the flate of the 
French alliance, he was anfwered, that they 
had then under confideration the immediate 
difmiffion of St. Lubin, The next day Tum* 
backer told him that on the morrow he was 
to fet out ; that a Durbar would be held foe 
that purpofe ; that after calling at Poonah^ 
he would proceed to Tanna. On the L6th 
Mr. Moftyn had another conference with the 
chiefs, who requefted that he would affure 
Ragobah of their ^ood intentions, and that 
they intreated him not to be induced by any 
reports to believe the contrary. Mr. Moftyn 
then took leave of Morabah. Notwithftand- 
ing thofe fair appearances things were far 
from being in a pro{p«rous way : unaccount- 
able remoras to Tumbackers journey appeared 
from day to day upon frivolous pretences, the 
principal of which were that fome parti- 
cular flipulations were to be made with Ro- 
,gobah, and fome objedfcions that he made to 
the perfon of Tyn^backer, whom he exprefsly 
defired not to be lent on this deputation to 
l^im, were to be anfwered and got over. 
Neither did matters go on fmoothly at Bom- 
bay : that council had received notice from^ 
Bengal of the intended march of the detach^ 


1^4 AN AC C ChU N T 

merit,, and. of U^.ElJipCs .orobaiTjr. T^hq 
majority of tbem conceiv^ed, tb^ thiiagst at 
PoonaJi wore, fa favourable an. afpecSl^ tbat 
with tbeif own force, witbout any aflijfence, 
tbey would be ablQ to bring matters to a fa- 
vourable conclufion ; and therefore that therq 
was no occaiion for the Bengal detachmpnt. 
Upon this they resolved to write to the com- 
^lander not to proceed in. hia nurgh^ but re- 
Wiftin with his detacbna^nt at Culgee. The 
reafons they gave were^. thai; tlie dji^ 
to. be encountered in the country which lay 
between Culpee and Bombay were unfur- 
ipountable, and therefore the march imprac- 
ticable, and expofing the Company's . trpops 
%yithout neceffity: that it was not poffil>le to 
procure for them either pafles or provifions ; 
libat the apprehenfions exprefled by the Su- 
preme Council of a war with France, and of 
attacks upon Bombay were not grounded ; 
and therefore the expence occafioned by fuch 
an undertaking was not warrantable. Meff. 
Praper and Stackhoufe diflented from this 
relblution ; they were of opinion the fituation 
of the prefidehcy was not altered eitber in 
refpe€l of the French or the Mahrattas ; that, 
it was well known the French had deligns 
againft Choul. The event has ihewn how 


iU-femftded tva* the reafoning^ of tha majority 
oOf every point. Pfetiiaps there were oth^i^. 
taotiyQS which occaiioned this reiblv^* Th«^ 
detachment, hftd it reached Bombay, would( 
have had the honour of all the advantages 
which were infured by the jundtion q£, thej 
forces : this has fo often influenced chiefs 
and comqfiander^ in all ages, that attribuiang 
it to the majority of this council cannot ber 
fudging harflily. Notwithftanding the op^ 
poiition of Mr. Draper and Mr. Stackhoufe,, 
on the 2 2d of April, the council wrote to» 
the commander of the detachment, defiring; 
he would flop at Culpee, and not proc^d 
till he fhould hear further from them. Ra^ 
gobah's impatience, which daily increafed^ 
made him look over all difficulties ; hepceflcct 
more and more the departure of the troops^ 
gtnd his. own ; he repeated the detail of ad* 
vantages that would immediately fbliow thci 
open and avowed declaration of the Englifii, 
that they fupported his caule. He defired to; 
diredl his march by Callian, where he af- 
firmed that Vifiagee Punt, a confiderable 
phief, was upon his appearance ready to 4e* 
plare for him, and join his ftandard. He of* 
fered to put the Company iiito the immediate 
poflefiioR of Bsiieijj, apd defired a ftate erf* his 



account, and the produce of the Pergunnahs 
to be afiigned to the Company for the pay- 
ment of their troops. But his affairs at Poo- 
nah were far from the (ituation the apparent 
zeal of Morabah and Saccaram had repre^ 
.iented. • 

The Poonah Du rbar were very uneafy at the 
march of the detachment from Bengal. The 
reaibn given for it to them both from the 
Supreme Council and Bombay, having been 
the danger that muft accrue to the Englifli 
fettlenient from the French being in poflef- 
fion of Choul, they defired to know if St. 
Lubin's immediate difmiffion would fatisfy 
the council, (b far as to induce them to ftop 
its march ; they made excufes for his having 
been permitted to remain there fo long ; al- 
lowing that fome promifes had been made, 
they aflerted that it was done only with a 
defign to amufe him ; they repeated their 
former reafons for the delay of Tumbacker ; 
but, upon the whole, they evaded granting 
the duftucks or paifports for facilitating that 
march through the Mahratta territories. 

The Bombay council on the 15 th of May 
fent their orders to Mr. Moflyn to fpeak pe- 


• OF BOMBAY. 157 

remptorily to the Poonah Durbar, that they 
(hould declare whether they confidered the 
treaty of Porounder as fubfifting, and the 
Mahratta ftate to be bound by it ; to demand^ 
agreeably to that treaty, the pofTeffion of a 
country producing three lacks near Broach ; 
to infift upon the countries ceded by Putty 
Sing as they had not produced the proofs 
required by the treaty ; to denaand an ex- 
plicit declaration concerning their engage* 
ments with the French ; and to require an 
anfwer in fourteen days ; telling them pofi- 
tively that a further delay or evafion would be 
conflrued into a refufal, and that the council 
ibould ad in coniequence. 

At the lame time they took off the rc- 
ftraint they had laid on the march of the de* 
tachment, and directed the commander to 
advance toward the coaft. The reafon they 
gave for their change of opinion was the 
continuation of the French refident at Poo- 
nah *, and the apparent bad dilpofition of the 
Durbar to the £ngli(h. 


^ Advices were received at Bombay th^t General Bel- 
combe, commaDder at Pondicherry, had come to Mahe in 
a fixty gun (hip; the council judging this to be the effisA 


ij8 ANACCbOl^T 

Morabah had a meeting wkh St. Lubiii^ 
at which he toM him that the 'Eiiglifli jea-^ 
loufy made it necellafy, he ihould abieiit 
9iimfelf for a time, but it lht>uld not aker 
the friendihip of the Mahratta nation to the 

St. Lubin bad undertaken to Morabah'to 
bring to Poonah 2000 Europeans within fif- 
teen months, or at lead before the detach- 
ment from Calcutta could arrive at its defti-* 
nation. The Podnah Durbar wrote at the 
'fame time to the Supreme Council to defire 
they would recal the detachment, upon this 
ground, that they were complying with the 

.of St. LnbifiV iDtr^es, and fearing the confequenees re- 
qoefted Sir Edward Vernon to defer bis departure, ^o 
promifed to employ his * frigates in fearching the whole 
coafty but added that he could not lofe any time, but 
muft proceed to Madras. General Belcombe's deftlaatioa 
^as faid to be Surat, where he was to flay during the 
-rains; he did arrive at Tillichery on the 3 d of April 1 778, 
in the Brilliant, a (hip of fixty-four guns, and bron^t tbxe 
hundred Europeans, who landed at Mahe. He got pof- 
feffion of a fmall fbrt by the ceffionof the prince of Cher- 
rica, who had orders for that purpofe from Hyder Ally, 
whofe vaflal he was. This pofTeflion was of confequence, 
as it commaaded the approaches to Fort St. George upon 
Green Hill which is the key to Mahe. Monf. Bellcombe 
was to leave Mahe the z^th bf April, and reiurn to 
Pondioherry. It was affirmed the BrtUUftt bnHight Jtwo 
'bttodred ibldiers: fr^Q^sn Mangaboi^. 



treaty of Porounider, that they fincerely in- 
tended bringing Ragabah to Poonah ; that it 
Was delayed only as it was neceffary that 
Furkia, who was advancing with a large 
force, ihould be confulted ; that Monf. St. 
Lubin was diipatched; that his fhip had 
brought nothing but merchandize : and that 
they meant in all things peace and amity 
with the Englilh. 

In truth Morabah had ui^ed St* Lubin to 
depart, that he might fboner bring tiie troops 
promifed, but he ilill remained at Poonah, 
faying^ he would fend letters which would 
bring them as foon as he could do, if he in 
perfon went for them. The .Durbar at the 
fame time wrote to Modagee Bouncelo, de«- 
firing that he would, if poffible, by fur 
means perfuade the commander of the detach*^ 
ment to return, and if he could not fiicceed 
by fair means to do it by force« 

St. Lubin had, in the month of March 
preceding, written to the captain general at 
Goa for leave for two French regiments to 
pafs through the Portugueze territories, arid 
to the ^verhor of Damaun for a permifiion 
Ar the French to ule that port ; both thcfe 



requefts were with great civility refufed^ iA 
they might tend to a mifunderftanding be^ 
tween the two crowns of Great Britain and 
Portugal 9 who were in {trlOt alliance and 
friendlhip ; but liberty was granted for their 
ihips to refreih in the Portugueze harbours, for 
which purpofe they ihould be allowed fifteen 
days* St* Lubin in anfwer endeavoured to 
reconcile him to his requefl, and added, that 
though to yield to the lEnglifli jealoufy, he 
was obliged to leave Poonah, he ihould not do 
fo without havmg fully efledted his bufinefs^ 

It was evident that the Durbar \vere feek-* 
ing delays, that the rains might come on 
before any thing was concluded. If they 
could retard the march of the detachment 
-until that time, they reckoned the rains would 
then ftop their progrefs, and during that in* 
terval the force might arrive which had been 
promifed by St. Lubin, who^jaotwithftanding 
the promife of Morabah, remained at Poo- 
nah. Hence frefli occafions of delays were 
found on each application of Mr. Moftyn for 
the duflucks or paflports. . At laft, he feeing^ 
that the diflfenlions in the Durbar ftill con- 
tinued, and that Sindia and Holcat infifted 
oi^ Ragobah's being brought to Poonab, ap* 


F B O M B A Y. . itfl 

{died to them leparately, and they readily 
granted him every order hb defired for the 
iafe and utldifturbed pafiage of the detachment 
through their refpedive dominions^ 

The prefidency of Madras, in cdiifequence 
of letters from the governor and Supremo. 
Council^ had determined to fend to Bombay 
the aid they had irequefted : they received 
letters dated the 29th of April, with advice 
of this : and now odce more varied their or^ 
ders for the route of the detachment, dire£t^ 
ing their march to Surat^ 

An attempt ^as made, about this time, by 
a relation of the infant Pailhwa, who was 
one of his attendapts^ to fteal his perfon from 
the fort ; he had carried the child half way 
down the hill before he was difcovered ) therd 
being flopped, he was fent to prifon^ and thf 
child was carried back into the fort« 

On thd 1 2th of June the Bombay CpUncU 
received notice from Mr. Baldwin at Grand 
C^ro of the fituation of afisurs between thf 
Engliih and French Aations^ an^ the ftate of 
Vru they were, in* 



The unceitaiftties it Pdbiish fti41 cb»^ 
tk^cd. Nanah, leavirtg his retreat had ?goi» 
lo Sindia, who rtceivftd hirii', «uid ptomtfea 
him fuppof t* tJhfey ferit tb all the dflfeers^ 
requiring their acknowledgment of them as 
tee feinifters ttf the Paifliwa. 

kagcbah ii5# informed tfte cotiiMtil tis?^ 
both parties had ijpfli^d to him^ and thit 
even tvitho^t tbe ^pp^earince of an l£i^gii(k 
fohre he height pT<iteed to Poohah, fore 6f 
flicceft theiie. He alfowtd diat both werfe 
his enemies ; but fafd d^edlr difcord wife fo 
great that nothing could go on, which drove 
thfem to this U|>plication ; and he mKfertdok, 
thiat his match would hw be aftended ^h 
any bppdfition, efpedally if the Ef^gKfli force 
appeaired *with hirii, and that thfe caSrryiSag thfe 
eahndn throtigh the Gdhtsy aiiid a ft^)|4y of 
p^ovifioh (hould bfe his care. 

On the other hand Morabah was- retreat- 
ifeig from P<j<5tikh, 'having (BeliVered t'he {Mb 
and the feh%fts ttf 6fli^e to Holtai^^, wht) fent 
diem to SitidJa, by %hdtti they tVefte d^i- 
veted lb Nehah, whefeby he Wfes once ligfffe 
eftablifhed in the Durbar ; but a vei^r iibn&^ 
derable number of adherents remained to 


Morabah, and it was probable, that this 
conteft would not eh6, without flaughter. 
Nanah's force in a mariner furrounding Poo- 
tiih atid Porounder fort, and occupying aU the 
paflages in the niountdins. He treated witJi 
Holcar as well as Sindia, and offered each 
of them immenfe ifuras if they would efppufe 
his caufe. « 

Nanah arid Mombah ^ach now wilhed in- 
t€;rviews with Mr. Moftyn, whp could not 
iform a judgriient which of them would ulti- 
mately get the better. He had procured 
a copy of the paper delivered by Nanah to 
$t. Lubin on the 13th of May 1778, ex- 
prefsly requiring the afliftance of France, 
•^ to punifli a nation who had raifed up an 
** infolerit head^ arid whofe meafure of in- 
** juftice was full ;*^ and in reward of this aid 
promifing a jaghire to be granted from the cir- 
car of the Paifliwa. About the fame time the 
Durbar had fent an anfwer to Mr. Moftyn^s 
ceprefeBtations, no way favourable, but in- 
lifting^ that they had in every f^nfe complied 
with the treaty of Porotmder. The council, 
pn the 2,4th of June, refolved to have every 
thing in readinefs to land their forces to ac* 
company Ragobah, whenever it (hould ap- 

L 2 pear 

l64 A N A C C O U N r 

pear that the pafles iii the mountains wete 

Mr. Moftyh being i*eturned to Bombay, and 
having given the feleft comniittee there all 
his information, and remarks on the preced- 
ing fads and dilpofition of affairs, the nature 
of the country through which the troops 
muft march in cafe of their joining Ragobah 
in his march to Poonah, which he repre- 
fented as very pradicable to infantry ; the 
committee, on the 21ft of July 1778, re- 
folved unanimoufly, that the Durbar's an- 
fwers were a violation of the treaty of Po- 
rounder* That the fituation of affairs in 
Europe, and the reftoration of Nanah Fur- 
neze, created a neceflity of immediate mea- 
fures to effeft the fubverfion of that party 
which was connected with . the French in 
fchemes hoflile to the Company, and for 
eftablilhing at Poonah an adminiftration with 
whom a fecure and permanent alliance could 
be maintained. That for that end Ragobah 
muft be placed in the regency, with a pro- 
vifo that the government and Sicca * be con- 
tinued in the name of the Paifliwa during his 

* The feaJ* 



minority, and fliould be furrendered to him 
at his legal age ; that Morabah (hould be 
acquainted that they will heartily join in this 
plan ; that an order fliould now be fent to 
the commander of the detachment to purfue 
the moft eligible route to Junier or Zener *, 
avoiding in his march the proximity of Au- 
rengabad, or any part of the Nizam's do- 

On the 1 1 th of July Morabah bad been 
ieized by 2000 men of Sindia*s force, and 
kept in the camp ; at the fame time all who 
were known to efpoufe his caule were ieized 
likewife, among whom were Vifagu Pont 
Binny , and Butchaba. Nanah had the name 
of minifter, but Sindia had in reality the 
whole power ; Saccaram was not fb much as 
confulted, and it was probable that both he 
and Nanah would be ibon confined, and Sin- 
dia aft openly alone. Soon after both Mora- 
bah and Butchaba were confined in different 
forts. Mr. Lewis the refident at Pqoqah, by 
the renewal of the obftacles to hi? cprrefpon- 
dence, foon found the influence of Nanah's 
government. That party now afted as if 

* So called in JeiTrie^'s mapt 

h 3 thQ 

»6($ AN A C C O U Nt 

the continuance of their pow6r was fecure, 
the armies of Sindia arnd Furkia each day de? 
creafed, by the^r difrhafging numbers of their 

The governor general and Supreme coun? 
cil in the beginning of this month took pof^ 
^fliofi of Chandernagore, and Wrote to the 
prefidency of Madras to order a fufficieiit 
corps of troops to be in readinef$ to march to 
Pondicherry, affirming that the war was 
iiow certaih, and that if they had not re- 
ceived acfvices 0r orders to the qpntrary frona 
England, they fhould proceed to hpftilities j 
beginning by the attack pf that place which 
would be their firft, as the fettlemeiit of 
Mahi or Mahe fhould be their fecond cap- 

) ..II ■ • -x 


Frelh propofals came now from Nanah 
and that party to Ragobah, all which he re-* 
jedted, and inlifted upon either being regent^ 
and having the cuftody of the infant Paifh^ 
wa, pr a partition in equal parts pf the pof- 
feflions of the iPaifliwa farpily, wjiereof out 
iiiare Ihould be his. On the 1 6th of Auguft 
the prefident acquainted the committee, that 
pja this refufal the meflenger from Nanah 


O y RO M B AY. 167 

hi^ ^PpHed to bim; but this application 
W^ verbal no further notice was taken of 
\ti^ Siac^a, aft^r telling Saccaram^ that his 
Ige prevented his being ufeful, ha4 ordere4 
hj^ufi to his hoviie, and no more to inter-* 
ISfd^ie^ mid b^^ pl^P^<l ^ guard on him* 

Hyder Ally had now taken Darwar, and 
«ra$ Qaa^-^hing towards Merits in order to at- 
t^^k it, on wluch the Durbar ordered a force 
tio ppppfe him. Befides this misfortune, 
thpy wejre emb^rrafled by the diibbedience of 
particular chiefs ; Nanah had fent orders to 
tke. Ki)lidar of An^anagur that he fhould 
d^iiY^r his fort to Sindia, the Killidar re» 
plied, he held it for Ragobah ; and not only 
^^^fufed to. furrei^^r it, but feiz^ three lacks 
qf jwpies which belonged to Nanah, and 
wefe returning from Aurengabad, where they 
hdd hmn fpcw^d for him during tl^c latd 

St, Lubia h^ been difmiflfed l^y Nanah, 
but rem^inod at Damaum, and a continual 
ccorreipondence w^s kept up between him 
3q4 Monf. Sriancpurt ^he Freqch refident at 
Surat, upon their fcheme of procuring troops 
to 8i:i:ive at Chpul, and thence proceed to 

h 4 Poonah; 


poonah ; and by intercepted cofrefpondent^ 
with Pondicherry, it appeared that Nanah 
had pot only required th6 aid of France as 
abovementionedy but that it was; ftipulated 
that the French fhould, as fppn as it was 
prafticable, move againft the Englifh, for 
which firft fervice they fhould receive twenty 
lacks of roupies, and ten (hips with fepoys ; 
afjd upon their attacking Bombay they (hould 
receive twenty lacks more : by oneof thofe let- 
ters, on pretence of the war being begun, they 
demanded payipent of the firft twenty lacks. 


It was now the 1 2th of Oftober, when 
Mr. Carnac delivered a mhiute to the Bom- 
bay council, reprefenting that much time had 
pafled iince the 2 1 ft of July, on which day 
they ha4 refolyed to affift Ragobah, the in* 
cpnveniencies of a delay, and the advantages 
which might be taken of the prefent iituatioa 
of the Poonah Durbar diftra£ted by divifipns, 
apd their army not yet affembled : this was 
feconded by the infbnuation and opinion of 
Mr. Moftyn, who added, that the adherents 
to Morabah muft conclude, if this oppo^'tunity 
Was fufFered to flip, that Ragobah was given 
tip. He further faid, as to the diftance at 
^hich the detachment ftill was, that though 


it might have been of more material advan- 
tage if nearer ; yet even in its then prefent 
Situation, which vtras near Sindia*s capital 9 it 
would be of great ufe by keeping him in awe, 
and thus facilitate their enterprize, whilfl on 
their fide, that enterprize by fixing the at* 
tention of the Durbar, would prevent the ob- 
ftacles which might otherwife annoy and re- 
tard the march; and he added, that the 
longer the execution of the refolve was de- 
layed, the greater the French influence, and 
the more effcftual the preparations at Poo- 
nah would prove ; on which it was refblved 
by the majority (Mr. Draper difTenting) that 
the refolution of the 21ft of July for con- 
ducing Ragobah to Poonah be forthwith 
carried into execution ; and Mr. Lewis was 
diredled to hold himfelf ready to leijve Poonah 
at a moment^s warning. 

On the 3d of November the refident and 
whole French faftory at Surat were made 
prifoners of war by orders from Bombay. 
. They continued fome time at Surat confined 
to their garden, being permitted to remain 
there to prevent inconvenience in their pri- 
vate arrangements ; but it was foon found 
that intrigues wpre carrying on for the delir 


iy6 A N A G C O UN f 

tioti) the execution of the general plan of 
the expedition^ and the determination of all 
points relative thereto ; but they, were proht* 
bited from intermeddling in the detail of the 
duty of the army, the. mode of marcHi or en* 
campment, or of carrying any military mea^ 
iiire into execution^ 

On the 1 5 th.of December the whole army 
with the committee had reached Campoly ^ 
where intelligence was received that a body 
of minifterial forces, being 10,600 horfe^ 
with fifteen pieces of cannon, and a large 
number of Boudays, encamped at Worgaum^ . 
three cofs on this fide Tullingaum, to ob- 
ftru6: the ma?ch when the Engliih fliould 
make their appearance above the Gauts^ f ha^ 
5000 horfe were to proceed down the Cur- 
Ibra Gaut to cut off the communicatbn with 
Panwell, and that Nanah, Saccaram^ Sin- 
dia, and Furkia were encamped near Poonah 
with 5000 more. Their refolutioil was, by 
hovering about the army, vvithout coming 
to a clpfe engagement^ to, diftrefs and wear* 
them out. Ragobah was encamped near the 
EngUfh, and it was not doubted but a number 
©f chiefs would loon appear with a force fuffi-» 
cient to remove all thoie threatened obftacles* 


GF BOMBAY. 1 77. 

T^'hp^^gh it was now the 2 3d of Decem- 
ber, the army had not proce«ded further than 
Campoli. This immenfe delay was occa- 
fioned by the making of roads for the. can- 
non; Mr, Carnac remonftrated againft it, 
and propofed that they fhonld be carried up 
by hand, which he argued was poflibl?, a$ 
ibme artillery had already been pafled that 
way. The commander treated this as chi^ 
jnerical, and they continued there, attacked 
now and then by fome of the hovering 
troops, who, whenever they came near e-^ 
Rough to be reached by the Englifh armyi 
lyeie repulfed ; it happened very unfortu* 
jfiately that in thefe Ikirmiflies Colonel Cay 
was ngiortally wounded, and Captain Stewart 
killed. The lofs of thofe two excellent 
officers was of great cpnfequence; at the 
iame time Mr. Moftyn's illnefs, which had 
begun foon after he left Bombay, increafed to 
fuch a degree, that he was obliged to return 
thither, ^where he dyed the i ft of Janu» 
^ry : and Colonel Egerton found his ftate of 
health fo bad, that it difabled him from at- 
tending either civil or military fundions; 
in conlequence he refigned the command of 
the army, in which Colonel Cockburn fuc- 
(;eede^ hhn. Major Dagon of the artillery 

M wag 


was promoted to the rank pf Lieutenant 

The Englifti force had now pafled the 
Gauts and reached Indorain. The reality of 
fhings proved far from anfwenng the idea of 
fuccour they had flattere4 themlelves with 
at their fetting out. They had expected 
that a? foon as they (hould have pafled the 
Gauts, Holcar and other chiefs of rank would 
have joined them with large bodies of horfe^ 
by which, if they received no other fervice, 
provisions and forage frpm the cpuntry round 
would haye been fecured ; but no fuch ap- 
peared, nor any perfons but a fevy mercena-? 
ries. Ragobah faw he had been deceived, 
and owned, that unlefs they whom he reck- 
oned on as friends were by the fpeedy defeat 
of his enemies aflvired of fafety, he could 
not rec}cpn on fhcir joining him. As the 
Englifh and hq advanced towards Poonah, 
the difficulty of being fupplied from the 
Concan increafed, from the greater advantage; 
given by the nature of the country to the 
flying parties, and the only hope left wasi 
that when they ibpuld approach very near 
to Poonah, Holcar might be enabled to ful- 
^1 his promifes^ Other accidents concurred 



to increafe the defedlion or coldnefs of Rago- 
Jbah's partizans. Morabah confined in Ah- 
mednagur, had been informed that Ragobah, 
inftead of taking proper meafures for his re- 
leafe, had written to the Killcdar of that 
fort, not to loofe him, until he fhould fend 
his orders from Poonah. This was foon 
iprcad, and whether true or falfe, had an 
cfftd: fatal to his caufe* Indeed it was 
plainly feen by the committee that Rago^ 
bahs aim was, by the Englifh arms to force 
his way through all oppofition, that (o every 
body might be at his mercy^ 

The Bombay council, to facilitate fup» 
plies from the Concan, fent a detachment ot 
a company of Europeans, three of Sepoys^ 
two field pieces and artillery men to clear the 
country between Panwell and Campoli ; at 
the fame time they exhorted the new com- 
mander Colonel Cockburn, to lofe no time, 
but proceed with vigour in his march^ 

Colonel Egerton, after his refignation, had 

fet out to return to Bombay ; but the roads 

. were fo occupied by the roving parties of the 

. Mahrattas, that finding it impoffible to reach 

Psnwell, he returned to the army, where he 

M ? refuni^d 


refumed his placB in the cemmittee, but ne| 
in the command of the troops. The com- 
mittee therefore now coplifteki of Mr. Carnac 
and him ohlyt After a irriarch of fifteen 
idays, during which they were continually 
harrafled by numerous J)artie§ of horfe, whoj 
whenever ,they encamped came fo near as 
to cannonade, hut when attacked inftantly 
retfeated, the army reached Tullangaum, 
which \Va8 but efghteen miles from Poonahj 
the Whol0 country was laid Wafte, a^d every 
jphing that could not be carried off deftroye4 
by fire. TuUarigaum i^t their arrival wis ir^ 
flames ; the fan^e fate impended for Chinfura, 
and even Podn^h. After a halt of two days 
at this place, Where the eneniy hari'afled them 
in their wonted naanner, the committee upol^ 
enquiry found there muft fpeedily be a wari^ 
bf provifions, afid the particiflar circumftancesf 
of their fituatlon being confidered by them, 
^hey determined that it was not poflible fop 
the army to proceed, but that ^hey muft re- 
treat towards Bombay t 

• Upon this determinatiqn, Mr. Carnac {en% 
for Colonel Cockburn, and informed him of 
it. The colonel rempnftrated againft it, al- 
Ifdjjing that the Ei^Hfh trooDS ufe4 not 


OF 15 Q M B aV. i8i 

to retreat but advance sjgainft the enemy^ 
ivduld bje difcour^ed by fuch a meafure, 
which aa it dapaped th^l^ Ipirit, raiui^ in pro- 
portion raife thjit of the Mahrgtta troops, 
who would not fa^l to aj^tac^ them during the 
march ; that if the Engjii^ by ill fortune ihould 
be at Jaft forcesd to treat, they would infift on 
very hard terms ; whereas if a treaty was to 
be made, it were rapre advantageous to en- 
deavour at it in the prefent fituation when 
they were within eighteen iriiles of Poonah } 
that if permitted to continue the march, he' 
had no doubt of carrying the' army there. 
But the retreat was refolved, ^nd the order 
given. To have the advance of the enemy^ 
the march was to begin at eleven o*clock 
that night ; it was made in three divifions ; 
the troops, which as they marched forward 
^ere the advanced guard, now became the 
rear ; they were commanded by Captaiii 
Hartley. The main body was incumbered 
by a great quantity of baggage, i ^oo pack 
bullocks, 300 carts, a buzar, an artillery 
park, and lopo coolies * with plficer's bag- 
gag;^^ The enemy furrounding on all fides, 
amounted to more than 1 00,000, theEnglifh 

M 3 armv 

tfta A N A C C d U N T" 

army originally not quite. 4000, were fomC"* 
what diminifliec). Colonel Cockburti thought 
it proper to acquaint Ragobah with his de* 
fign ; by this the. enemy were apprized of 
it, and about two in the morning the advan-* 
ced guard was attacked ; they had proceeded to 
a confiderable diflance from the main body^' 
which had been retarded by dragging the 
baggage through very bad roads, this the 
enemy took a great part of* The attack was 
continued with vigour, but notwithftand- 
ing their reiterated charges, the advanced 
guard about daylight reached Worgaum, 
having faved moft of their provifion and am- 
munition. About four in the morning the 
main body was attacked on the rear and both 
flanks ; the hah this occafioned gave the ene- 
my the opportunity of bringing up cannon; 
the army then formed, and the attack became 
general about fix. The weight of it fell on the 
rear guard, commanded by Captain Hartley ; 
the conduiS and courage of this gallant officer 
Was anfwercd by the bravery of his m€n4 
From the fituation of this corps, and the dif-* 
tance of it from the main body, no fupport 
was given them till about twelve o^clock ; 
during thefe fix hours he fuftained repeated 
charges, without being ofice broken. A 


6 F B O M B Af. 183 

fmail part of the European battalion was 
then fent under Major Frederick, who had 
orders in every thing to aft by the direftion 
of Captain rfartley. The major chofe when 
he had joined the rear, to zQ: in a private 
capacity, as a volunteer. Soon after this 
reinforcement had arrived, the order came for 
the whole to retire^ and about four in the 
afternoon all the army had effe£ied their re- 
treat, and got to Worgaum, having loft fix- 
ty-three artillery, fixty-two Englilh,* and 
two hundred and thirty-feven Sepoys. 

t)uring the halt at Tullangaum, Ragobali 
had for himfelf opened a negotiation with 
Sindia, and declared his intention of putting 
himfelf under his protection : he was received 
by him, and was at this time adually in his 
camp, where he was treated with relpedl. 

The next day, the 15th, the committee 
had another confultation on the difmal fitua- 
tion of their/afFairs, and Colonel Cockburn 
being afked his opinion, notwithftanding the 
bravery (hewn the preceding day, gave it un* 
der his hand that the troops would not ftand 
fuch another attac]k; that from the number 

M 4 , of ' 

iH AN A ceo u N r 

ber of the enemy arid 'their reiterated attack§| - 
they fliould, through their many 'halts, bd 
twenty days Before they coxi Id reach ran well ^ 
and miifl: be tot;aliy deftroyed ; and he decrafe^ 
he eould not charge Hiriilfelf With c6h(ld<9:irig 
the army to Bombay ; in ^his qpiiiibn Golbridi' 
Egerton (though he did not '{6t his hand to 
It) concurred. 'Upon this it was defermifae^ 
to try whether they could hot, by treating 
with the Mahratta chiefs, extricate themfelves 
froin the dreadful ftreighf s to which they; 
were deduced. As Nanah the minifler, in 
whom the power oftenfibly refided, was then 
in the Mahratta camp, it was thought proper 
to fend Mr. Farmer to him, to negotiate' for 
an undiflurbed retreat of the arnSy'to Bbm-* 
bay. He at firft was tolerably well jeeeived, 
and nothing more * deniarided than dhat 'the 
perfon of Ragobah ffioufd be ' delivered -up i 
but when that was .found iiot pofGble even 
though the Engliftt chiefs ftiould yield to fo 
humiliating a condition, Katiah's behaviour 
altered, he rofe in his 'defnands, arid infifted 
that the Englifh ^fiiould fur render all the 
accjuifitions f hey had made lihce the time of 
Mahderow; that the detachment under* Cg-» 

• - • 

lonel Goddard' fhould be 6rdered to retreat ta 
Bengal, and intimated that the Englifli army 


Ihuft be detained where they then were, till 
the htids to be ceded by this treaty were de- 
IJvfefed into the pofleffion of the Poonah 
IDurbar. To this fevere requifition he added 
Infult ; for Mr* Farmer w4s left in tlie open 
Buzar without any covering but his palan- 
queen, or any place in which he could write 
his meffages. Thefe mortifying terms being 
'<:ome to the Englifli camp^ another coafulta- 
tion was held ; Mr. Carnac declared that at all 
iiazards he Ihould prefer continuing their* 
retreat raiher than fubmit to fuch difgracefiil 
conditions; but as the railitaiy officers had 
given their opinions that it was impoffible to 
effedi it, he would not take upon himfeff 
to decide on his fingly* In this emergency ' 
it occured to them, that Sindia having in 
feme meafure fhewn himlelf favorable to the 
Caufe of Ragobah by his reception of hint, 
inigKt on'this occafioribe ferviceable to them. 
To try tills, Mr. Holmes was fent to him* 
<Dn his' Way h^ was met by fbme of Naiiah*3 
troops. Who, as they feared that this mef^ 
fage might prove to the advantage of the 
feiiders, and the diminution of their mafter'a 
credit, endeavoured to prevent his accefs to 
Sindia, firft by requiring him to go to Na- 
nah, and then detaining him till a party of 


ift6 ANAGC6tJNiE^ 

Sindia^s troops came and difperfed themj and 
carried him into their mailer's prefenCe ; there 
he was received with humanity and kindnefs* 
Sindia feemed flattered with this acknowledg-* 
ment of his confequence; and upon Mr* 
Holmes, in his return of thanks ^or his ci- 
vility, comparilig his behaviour to Nanah's 
in regard to Mr. Farmer, he immediately 
ient for him, and defired that both he and 
Mr* Holmes would look on themfelves as his 
guiefts. They then begun to treat with him 
on the fubjefl: of their miffiori, in the firft 
place fhewing a writing figned by the com* 
mittee, wherein they declared they had not 
power to grant fuch terms as the Durbar iri 
the perfon of Nanah had prefcribed : that fuch 
a treaty would be a nullity, and that (hould 
they be compelled to fign fuch a conven* 
tion, the toinifters would be deceived if they 
trufted to it. This declaration was alfo pre- 
lented to N^nah, who would hear of no di- 
minution of what he had required ; he even 
fent a meflage to Sindia defiring that he would 
not recede from that point of retaining the 
army, but moreover require particillarly the 
furrender of the cafile of Surat arid Fort Vic- 
toria, and the payment of the expences of 
the war, before they fhould be releafed ; and 



W the fame time he fcnt orders to Furkla 
to take the proper meafures for preventing 
their efcape. Mr. Holmes promifed Sindia, 
that if he would befriend the Englilh in this 
matter^ the council of Bombay would cede 
to him Broach and its Pergunnah which 
had been conquered by them from the Nabob 
of Surat. Sindia did efFeftually endeavour to 
leiTen the hardfhip of the terms impofed, but 
prevailed only in regard to the releafe of the 
army. He prevented the orders given to 
Furkia from being executed, but left he 
ihould dilpleafe the other Mahratta chiefs re- 
quired that hoftages ihould be given for the 
performance of the ftipulated ceffion. 

Hard as thefe conditions Were, they feemed 
to the committee preferable to the lofi of the 
army, which they looked on as inevitable 
fhould the Mahratta chiefs be thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the defpondency of the leaders t 
they feared that Sindia, apprehenfive of lofing 
his influence with thofe chiefs^ who, fenfible 
of the' advantage this occafion had given him 
muft wonder at his negledt of it, might 
through that and the reiterated inftances 
of Nanah, be prevailed on to come into 
and fecoiid his rigorous conditions^ perhaps^ 


%ti A N A c c o ir isr 1^ 

if Angered by refifbance enhance them ; ina 
Xtlymg on the cffeGt of die e^prefs dtclaratioa t 
io folexiinly given under thek hands, that ithey 
had not power to accede to fuch terms^ and 
that whatever they thus were conlp^lkd to 
do, would be a nullity, they confented fo 
£gn a convention^ whereby all that had been 
acquired by the Bombay coundl fince the 
time of Mahderow was tp be furrendered§ 
and oi^rs to be fant to Colonel Goddard to 
conduct his detachn^ent back to Bengal : and 
Mn Farmer aud JLieutengnt Stewart were toi 
remain as hoftages for the performance of 
thde conditions. This dqne the army was 
permitted to retreat to Bombay^ -^fcorted by 
a detachment of horfe i Ragobah remained 
under the prpteftion of Sindia. Mr* Holmes 
thouj^tit proper to be>muniii<^e&t iaprefeflitd 
to Sindia*js officer Sj but not having ready ca(h 
HMde his ^efent in bills and notes payable 
9t Bombay^ amQunting to 4iy6o6 roupies* 

The.fpelings of men now educed to be 
guaoidcd by thofe very troops they 4ad been 
acc^onnfid to behold; flying before them, cart 
beixictce eafily imagined than defbribed : by 
tbe: time they iteached. Bombay, the^j^ycaufed 
Iqt thm/a;Cbty h^d given v^ay to iudignation 


F B d M B A V. i«^ 

pt the ihatile an4 4i%race Ijrought on tl^ 
gtitilK grrhs, 

On the 29th tif January the couticil ftidt 
at Bortibay , in which Colonel Egerton and 
Colonel Cockburn refumed their feats, Thfe 
firft thing done '^as reading the digty of the 
unfortunate expedition; after which Mr. 
Hornhy reprefeiited that the taiifes of the 
failure of it ipight be matter of future confi- 
deration, that they fhould now proceed tt> 
determine what meafures were to be taken 
for their fafety, and retrieving their affiiirs. 
He arraigned the conduct of the leaders whilft 
he extolled the bralvery of the army, and in* 
lifted that to keep up that gallant ipirit they 
Jiad (hewn, it was neceflary %o diftinguifh 
thdfe who had done them honour frorp thofe 
who had been wanting in their duty, whofe 
example was pernicious : he nientioned fom^ 
inferior officers to be tried by cpurts martial, 
at the fame time he impeached the condudl 
pf Colonel Egerton and Colonel Cockburn, 
and offered it as his opinion, that until their 
^haviour could be fully enquired into, they 
ihould decline acting in a military chara6ter.j 
|iis charge was particularly in regard to thfe 
ppii^jon CplpneJ Cockbypi ligncd Ht Wor- 


mum, in which Colonel Egertou had ecu* 
curred. If they did not confent to what he 
propofed, he ihould move for their fufpen-- 
iion* Colonel Egerton at firft infilled on 
Jceeping his place both in the army and the 
council till a formal charge was delivered 
againft him, but upon further gonfideration 
he, as well as Colonel Cockburn, acquiefced, 
and they declined afting in their military 
capacity until the opinion of the fupreme 
council ihould be known. 

It is not furprizing that after fb difagree«> 
able an event the adors Ihould endeavour 
.each to throw the blame from himfelf. The 
compafs of this work will not permit de^ 
fcending to many particulars of this alterca- 
tion, which appears at length in the minutes 
of the Bombay cquqcil, 

Mr, Carnac blamed the flownefs with 
which the army proceeded from Panwell, and 
to that attributed the greatnefs of that force 
to which they were obliged to yield ; and as; 
to the retreat, he affirmed that there was no 
poffibility of ading other wife as things were 
then circumftanced ;. he blamed the diflanoe 
pf the divifiong whereby they were uqable to 




fupport each other, and the not having or- 
dered the fecond divifion to fupport the rear 
^hen attacked, which he afHrmed might have 
been eafily done ; and as to the determinatioa 
3t Worgaum, he ^ faid that his own private 
opinion was againft it ; but that although, by 
his cafting vote in the committee, he might 
have prevented it, he did not think his au- 
thority extended fo far as to give orders for 
the march at all events ; and though it had, 
it would have been imprudent to give it to 
officers who had exprefled fuch an opinion 
of the troops they were to lead. That there 
was no alternative, no way left, but to ob^ 
tain the beft ternis poflible for the yamplefted 
feturn of the army to Bombay. 

Colonel Egerton juftified the delay attri- 
birted to him by Mr. Caruac, from the im- 
ppffibility of dragging the artillery through 
roads impaffable till mended by the labourers ; 
from the time neceffarily confumed in getting 
provisions : and he pofitively denied that he 
liad refufed conducing the army from Wor- 
gaum to Bombay, or having concurred in 
Colonel Cockburn's written opinion, which 
he did not remember fo much as to have 

fcepi till it was |)rQduced a( that board. 


1^1 A N A C C O U N T 

Colonel Cackburn laid all the mircarrlag? 
pn the Jfirii: error in orcjoring the retreat, H« 
fet forth ia hi$ juftific^tion the remonftranee. 
he had made againft it ; his undertaking, if 
the army marched forward, to conduiQ: it to 
Poonah ; that the diftance of the diviiions 
was occafit)ned by th? cjqantity qf baggage, 
;tn4 the badneTs of the ground through which 
they were to warch, whereby the firft divi-r 
iion, unencymbered,. was enabled to advance 
more quickly than the others ; that as foon aa 
pofiible he had fept relief to Captain Hart<t 
Jey. He owned the opinion he had figned, 
and faidi that i|: was founded on the inform 
fnaition he had received from fepoy officers 
that their men and black officers were likely 
to defert in the night, which was confirmed 
by meflages received from Ra.gobah and Mr. 
$ibbald ; that fome.defertion did ^6tualiy hap-^ 
pen ; that fwqh anatjher attack would have 
exhaufted the ammunition ; that the great dif- 
ficulty of carryii^g three hundred lick men 
would have increafed their embarraffments ; 
that the^ arrny, already diminiflied in num- 
bers, having fo many attacks, to fuftain, muft 
\iave totally perilhed ere they could have 
jfeached jPanwell : ^thofe were the grounds of 
his opUilQU, not withftanding which he would , 

OF B O S4 3 A Y.^ i^i 

to the. bdl of hi§ ability, had Mr.Camac, 
by his cafting vote ordered the retreat to be 
continued, have Ifed the army ; 'that by fayj- 
' ing he could nbt^ charge hiiiifelf with the 
conduft of the army, he did riot meatt to re- 
fufe conducing it, if fuch ari order had beeii 
l^ven, but merely to aVoid relponfibility for 
the ill fuccefs which he fbrefaw ; that Gdlo- 
nel Dagon was of the fame opinion ; why 
Was hfe therefore' accufed as the caufe of a 
tneaforewfeich depended on others? 


Captain Hartlfey was, for liis fervice on thd 
retreat^ promoted to the rank of Lieutenant 
Colonel ; this occafioned Complaints and re- 
moriftrances from the other officers ^ but 
thole things are not of a nature to be dwelt 
on here *. 

♦ la the fetter to the fecrct cdmmittce, the council of B^m 
bay enter very fully into the reafons for the advancemeac 
of Colonel Hartley, and mention not only his condu^ on 
the retreat) which faved the vvhole army, but his fplrited 
advice when xonfulted at Woi^aum, where he infiftedy 
when, defertioh Was mentjoned, that he could depend oa 
the men he commanded, that he had efie^taally prevented 
defertloii frdm fprieading* ia his corps ; he urged ev^ry ar* 
gument for continuing the retreat rather than fu^bmit to 
dlfgracefnl ferms. He even formed a dirpofition, and pre- 
fented it la Colond Cockbum for conducing it, and avoid- 
jcig the incoQveoiencies of a night march, and the dtviiion , 
of the troops. H« hath finta Ihewn himfelf worthy of his " 

N The 


The retom of the army to Bombay 1^0$ 
immediately followed by the arrival of a Va^ 
qiieel ^m the Poonafa Durbar, and one fe^ 
^arately on the part of Sindia^ demsmdii^ 
in form the poffeflion of the Several placet 
fiipulat^d to be furrendered ; the -anrwer given 
was> that MeiT. Carnac and ^^^tou had Ao 
authority to conclude. any tr^y on behalf Of 
the Company, that this had b^ deckitd to 
the leaders of the Mahrattas before the paper 
upon which they grounded their dein^md was 
fubfcribedy and that the Bombay council had 
no authority to take any AfpB in tonfe^uence 
until they received the ientioienta of the Su- 
preme Council, to ivhom they Wbuid dif- 
patch ;a veiiel, and wait their determmfttioa^ 
Care was taken at the fame time to kave an 
opening for treating feparately with Sindia# 

On the 1 9th of Febrtrary the Bombay 
cfouncil took into coiifideration the ftate of 
their affairs* The prefident Mr. Hornby 
laid before them a minute on that fubje£t, in 
which he entered into a full detail of ill fa<fla 
and circumflanceg^ He menticxied, m the 
firft place, the attention they ihould have 
paid to Colonel Goddmrd's army, and in* 
formed them that it had reached BrampoOT 


Of so MBAV. 195 

tjid ipth of January; he added^ that there 
was no danger of a Mahrattia array marching 
againft him^ as th^y were too hmy at homei 
that they were already fending troops to the 
neighbourhood of Carange and ^alcet, beit^ 
rei^ved to obtain the ceifioa of all promifed by 
the convention of Wargauni^ which they had 
demanded the pofleflion of by their Vaqueels* 
He reprefented that as it was to be e^pe^ted, 
that Nanah would lofe no time in proceeding 
to enforce the ceflipn . he demanded, they 
ought to loie no time in their preparatiotis to 
refill him* He then entered into a detail of 
what had pafled previous to that Convention, 
lamenting the bad efie£ts of difcontinyiiig a 
march which would have been equal to a 
viftory ; he mentioned all the particulars re- 
lating to Sindia*s behaviour when applied to 
by Mn Holmes, ad a proof of his inclination 
to be on good terms with the Engiifh, not 
only on account of the promife made to him 
of Broach and the (hare of its Pergunriah^ 
but from political future viewSj which he 
deduced from the ieveral incidents at the 
time of the convention and foon after, and 
from the drcumftances in which all matters 
flood at that mpmept. He mentioned that 
Mn Holmes duringljiis refidence in Sindia*s 

N % cap, 

198 AN A C e q U NT 

in Bptnbay, to Mr. Lewis, who knowing 
that meafures were already taken with Ra^' 
gobah ^ould go no further, than to make 
general profeffions of friendihip; that Ap-^ 
pagee avoided all meeting with the agent fent 
by Nanah, and had m charge only the par-^ 
ticular interefts of Sindia; that he never 
mentioned the return of the Bengal detach^ 
ment ; and what w&s very remarkable, though 
the order from Meff. Camac and Egerton to* 
Colonel Goddard for that purpofc had been 
delivered to him to be fent, they had no ac«» 
count of its having been yet received *. 

From thefe feveral fads he reafoned on 
the motives which caufed them ; that the 
the principal view of Sindia muft be to re* 
tain his power at Pqonah; that he bad to 
dread the jealoufy of the other chiefe, ne- 
ceflarily fearing his power, and the uie 
he, when fully eftablifhed, might make of it 
in crulhing them ; that the ]^Ii?^am and {lydef 


^ Mefllr Carnac and Egerloo wrote from Campoli the 
I9?h ^JAOfQat;! i779» that he was to pay no regard tq 
fhcir order of tiTe ^6th, bccaufe, upo^ recoUeftion, they 
ifound they were not authorized to giv« it. This he re- 
ceived at 3urh4mpor(i the 3d of Februgry^ ^nd the order 
of the 1 6th of January hj^ only received the 9th of February 
in his camp atChopwah upon the ^i^tmiddyi by aVaquee| 
WoPgiPg to tb« ipf^Ot Ps^W«r 

O P B O M B A Y. 19^ 

wer^ reftdy to fuppoit them agaioil hioi* The 
influence of the Bramins, through the afcen* 
dancy of their caft, and their great wealth, 
was another fource of uneafinefs to him;^ 
that however great his powo: whilft he was 
at or i^ar Poonah with his troops » his ab- 
fence from thence would ai^rd opportunities 
to thofe who felt the wdght of it to fhake it 
off, which dangers made bis prefence neceA 
{kxy I whilft on ^ the other band his private 
concerns fufieted by bis abience from his 
own dominions: that the King had taken 
QCcafiojQL from it to.feise ibme forts belonging 
to him ; that he feared both the Nizam's and 
Hjder's attexnpts of the fam^ kind ; that he 
had fisdiie uneadnefs alfo in regard to Moda* 
gee Bouncelo^ whole intereils croffing his, 
muft be apprehenfive of his power ; that if 
Nanah, at liberty by this abfence to eicercife 
his talents and influence, ihould regain the 
fuperiority, be would, by the French aU 
liance he enabled to keep it. From the de^ 
tail of m thefe confideratigns be drew tb^ 
following concluQons ; 

{.That the ad:ual adminiilration of afl^airsi 
io the Mahratta empire was 9i Sindia's 

N 4 difpofel; 

,> " 


» ■ • 


difpofal ; that Nanah was reduced to be 
no moxe than the tool of his poweri. 

2. That Sindk was not only inclined to the 
Engliih in preference to the French, but 
canieft for fbme clofer connexion, and al- 
liance with the Englifh. 

3. That the accomplifliment of the terms, of 
the convention, fo far as related: to the Poo- 
nah fircar, was not the objeft of his views, 
lince he had in , faft given the Engliih the 
option whether to comply with them or not, 

4 . That the perforrriance even of the private 
article in his fevour was not the firft objedt 
of his confideration ; but chiefly intended 
as a fund to pay from in any alliance, 

5. That independently of his views to an al- 
liance he had fbme motives of policy, which 
rendered hina unwilling that the Englifti 
poffeffions and power on that coaft fhould 
be materially reduced. 

6. That it was for the intereft of the 
Company, and neceffary to their purpofes 

. at this fettlemcnt, to find what Sindia's 

OF BOM BAY. loi 

' : real intentions were, and to take nieaiiires 
in concert with him for the excluiioQ 
of Nanah from all power. 

His reafons for his fuppofitions were, that 
all dominion but that of the fword was over- 
thrown at Poonah ; that Sindia being then 
in pofleffion of it, his great objeft muft have 
been to iecure it, and his intention either to 
remove the feat of his government to Poo- 
nah, or to eftablifli there Ibme power fob- 
ordinate to his. That the firft was dangerous, 
and would alarm all the chiefs who aimed to 
continue their independence, as his great 
power muft enable him to crufli them, ^ The 
Nizam and Hyder would be ever ready to 
fopport them in the fouthern parts of : the 
empire, where the Bramins have great weight 
from the circumftances of caft, riches, and 
influence. In Sindia's own jaghire, the king 
taking advantage of his and Holcar's abfence<^ 
was nhking fome progrefs againft them ; 
that Modagee looked to the Rajafhip ; that 
the king and he muft be confidered as dan? 
gerous enemies to Sindia. As to the fer 
cond, . the eftabliihment of a fubordinate 
power that feemed more fuitable to his cir^ 
. giiimftaiicea aqd agreeable to bis paft con? 


los A N A C C O U N f 

ixi&. The difilculty lay in the means : his 
cfacice of Nanah to be Duau arolfi ffom his 
hopp of gaining credit by the moderation 
ifaewn in placing in that o^ce a man of fuch 
abilities^ 9Qd of the Bramin caft; but this 
dwice was dangerous ^y the occafion his 
abfence ^nd Holcar's alfo (whofe afiairs called 
him away) funiifhed Nanah to afiert his 
indc|)endence, and cc»itiaue his connexions 
with St. Lubin ; th^t the arrival of the alfift« 
aace from France would refVore his fuperio^ 
xity, but the fupport qf the Engliih power 
en the coaft was a fecurity againft even his^ 
^dependence ; that the Bramins in general 
were inclined to th$ French ; that even Mo« 
labah was fb ; that it was the mutual interefi 
of both Sindia and the £nglifh to guard 
againft Nan^h and their influence; that the 
council was bound in honour to acquit fhem* 
i^Ives to him, his protedion at Worgaum 
being a valuable confideration ; that Eago» 
bah by his engagen^ent with Sindia had re^ 
Jieved the Company from the care of his in* 
terefts ; and that all {lipulations tending ta 
be hoilijie to Berar w^re to be avoided, H«. 
^refore, in the firfl place, propoied that 
the notes given by Mr. Holmes among Sin^ 
^ia*$ olfiQers ^ Durbar <;]^arges, amount 



Ing to 41^90^ iromjim^ ihould be immedi* 

« . 

In the m^an time every thing yms to b* 
prepared fo as to be in readinefs for ferviccy 
that if Stadia ihould refuie their advances an 
army might be fent into the field toward 
Surat or ^^roach, to zSk in concert with tho 
<3etaphment ; that an alliance with the Gui- 
cawars Should be attempted ; that fuch a 
connection was defirable from their command 
of the Guzerat^ their averfion to the Poonah 
government, and their diflance from the cen- 
ter of the empire ; that the diviiions which 
then reigned among them diminiflied thdr 
importance ; that the connexion Futty Sing 
had wi|h Siudia (hould incline them to him ; 
that an alliafice with Sindia was in every r6* 
fptd^ preferable to one with Modagee Bomi- 
cello, as the claims he had upon the fuccef* 
iion to th^ {lajafhip tended to cr^te embar^ 

That as to Ragc^ah there could be no 
thought of purfuing the plan of his refloration j 
that cirpumflances difiered totally from what 
^bey were in the year X775» when fervice 
was tender^ to him by Sindia^ who now had 
^ tbo 

f 04 A N A G C Q U N T 

the conamand of an army, the only title to 
the empire, that Ragobah was his penfiouer^ 
and merely a cloak to his ambition. Upoa 
this reprefefitation it was refblved, 

That the convention at Worgaum was inr 
valid ; and that as after the exprefs declaration 
to the Durbar, that the concimittee had not 
the power to accede to thofe terms, the pub- 
lic faith could not be confidered as pledged ; 
that the general anfwer already given to Na-? 
Dah was all then uecefl^ry, 

That Sindia, in confequence of his good 
offices, was entitled to every mark of regard, 
^nd that it was neceflary to find fbme equiT 
valent to the ceffion of the Mogul ihare of 
the Broach Perguniiah j 

That the notes given for 41,000 ro^pi^Sl 
Durhar charges (hould be forthwith paid ^ 

That there was good grqund to hope Sin-? 
dia is well difpofed to and willing to enter 
into' a connexion with the Company ; 

' That the objed in this conne}«on muft b^^^ 

- . » ... 

I. The 

O F B O M BAY. 205. 

i; The total exclufion of the French, and 
of Nanah from any fhare in the go-i 
vcrnment at Poonah. 

2* To prelerve for the. Company the ter- 
ritory they, then held. 

That it was abfblutely neceflary tb lofe no 
time in endeavouring at this, and to avoid any 
engagement hoftile to the Raja of Berar 5 that 
nrothing fhould be finally fettled without the 
concurrence^ of the Governor and Supreme 
Council ; diat in confequence of thefe reib^ 
iutions the prefident Ihould write to Sindia. 

Although the reflexions of Mr. Hornby 
were in general well founded^ he was toit 
taken in two points: the Durbar at Poortah 
were not inattentive to Colonel Goddard*3 
march ; they had aftually detached 20,000 
of their beft horie to furprize him, but his 
celerity in his progrefs from Brampour pre- 
vented their reaching him, they therefore 
returned without having cpmmitted any a6t 
of hpftilky. Nor was Sindia {o well inclined 
to the Englilh or naturally averfe to a French 
alliance : though he had granted pailes for 
the march of the detachment through his 



Countiy, and made ho hdtile oppofitlbti^ kt 
had thrown obfbclea in their ^rajr^ by or* 
dering the inerchaiits io remove firom Bram^ 
pour, whereby it became difficult for Colonel 
Godddrd to raife money dn his bilk. This 
jtnanner of ading was cotififiBlit with the 
policy that guides the princes of Indoilan ; 
whatever dtfiehtions reign among thetn, they 
all unite in hatred of Europeans^ and moft 
of the Englifli whom they fear i. this is theiif 
natural bent^ Their feeming prefeiit intereft^ 
or the views of their tainiiller^ either £ot 
their mafters or their own ptiviate advanf^e^ 
often predominates over that bias; by thddi 
channels only they are acceffiblei The pre* 
iiclent in confequence of the refolutions wrotel 
to Sindia, but he did not meet thofe ad^ 
yances in the manner hoped for* The de* 
mands of the ftipulated ceHions were reite^ 
rated, the delay occafioned by wridng Co thd 
Supreme Council was complained of as an 
evafion; tffeSts followed theie mcSkgeSy a 
body of their troops advanced to* foit Yio* 
toria, dnd inteJligenee was rsceived of pife^ 
parations for the attadcaf Salcet^ Pro^ 
pi'ecautions taken prevented their efie^ng 
their purpofes* 


Q P fe O MB AY. fto^ 

with hU det^cfainent at Sarat, oil the a 5 th 
of February^ changed the fatce of fifi&ir^. It 
is bow .times to revert to the proceedings oi 
the Su|)iiem6 Council and the march of thai 
detachment ; but heiore we entet upon thae 
iut^ed^ it cmj not be amlia to enq^re into 
the Cauffe of the remarkable event jud re* 
lated : a gallant aroly^ after 4 de&dce as glo« 
rioi^ as a vi^ory, reducied huilibly to crave 
and Xubmit to dligraceful tercnsi and retire^ 
covered with ihamey to the place whence the/ 
had &t out, pluming themielveS in full d£* 
iutaiiiceof returning crownM with fucceis;^ 
and the honour of giving a ruler to the Mah^ 
satea empire* The chara&er of the prince 
whom they ei^ou&d^ and the views of tbofe 
who eipouied hito, lead to it« The true vny 
of Jud^ng mens charad:ers is not to dedidd 
vpon the events of thdir iives, but ^pon their 
behaviour in confequence of thefe events* 
Thofe iti the iile of Ragobah are various , and 
fbmeof them furpriziog; from the begin- 
it^ to ^md lie hsth been th& iport of Fortunes 
In all her inconilanCji The changes from 
iU to {good feem to be tbb effedk of the policy 
<^ the Mahratta chiefs, and thofe from pno- 
fjfedty to tyretchedhe&i ths^ QjSedl of o&i^ 


168 A N A G C ir N T 

tancy, and fudden impreffidns of fear preci- 
pitate in their exertion. Naturally bold and 
brave he formed fchemes of greatnefs, and 
entered upon them with Ipirit i but looking 
to one objedl only, he fatw not the obftacles 
that lay in his way^ or the thorns that might 
render his paflage difficult, yet he ^tas prpne 
to fuipicion, which^ whfen once admitted, to-* 
tally abforbed e^ery ideA but that of the dan- 
ger it pointed out, and hurried him to decide 
merely on that idea, without examining whi- 
ther it was well founded or groundlefs. At 
the fame time as prone to truft thofe td 
whom he applied in fuch emergencies^ with- 
out knowing whether they were well or ill 
inclined to him : he had talents of generaljQbip 
which he exerted With fuccefs ; his errors m 
forming his defighs feem to have arifen from 
an over-weening impatience which prevented' 
his lexamination of the probability that the 
promifes of his friends, and the warmth of 
his expedlation, would be anfwered ; thi^ 
made him venture rafhly, and urge with im- 
petuofity thofe on whom he could really 4** 
pend, not eonfidering that if by yielding to 
that raflinefs their ftrength was broken^ he 
left his only fupport ; that impetuofity made 
bim fuppofe his wiih completed when the: 



firft ftep towards it was fcarcely taken, and 
forget that h^ owed attentions to thofe who 
had already favoured or niight in future fa* 
vour his caufe, and a6l as if he was really 
feated in the fullnefs of power and no more 
wanted their affiftance, or feared their en- 
mity ; he faw not the true reafbn of his fo 
readily meeting fupport in his ill fortune, 
that the princes who then efpoufed his caufe 
did it not from any perfuafion of the juftice 
of itj or any zffeSdon to his peribn, but 
merely from policy, their independence being 
preferved by the continuation of the difien- 
tions which the Mahratta empire ; during 
which they could not be called to account 
for their tribute, as the fide they befriended 
would not, and that they oppoied, could not 
enforce payment of it : this fyflem accounts 
for the general run of the a£ts of the Mah- 
ratta chiefs. This it was which raifed hin> 
armies in his former diAreiies, and influ- 
enced Sindiato receive him when the Euglifh 
army retreated from TuUinghaum, and to 
f^ften the rigour of Nanah*s requitition at 
Worgaum ; he had no reafon to fear their 
ptofperity, and knew, by experience, th^t a 
complete fettlement of the empire, under the 
Duanlhip of Nana, and mtniftry of the Bra- 

O xnins. 

210 A N A C C O.U N T 

mins, would extinguifli his influence/ and 
that as foon as thev found themfelves efta- 
blifhed in their pofts^ and ftrengthened in 
credit by an increafe <!)£ territory, they would 
demand and enforce the payment of the ar- 
rears of tribute : this muft have been the firft 
thought that ftruck him, on the application 
of Mr. Holmes, the fending his vaqueel to 
Bombay, with particular inftrudions on his 
feparate intereft, plainly proves it : he meant 
to have Ragobah under his protection, or ra- 
ther in his cuftody, that he might upon 
dccafion make a proper ufe of that circum- 

Unfortunately the impatience of Ragobah 
was convmunicated to the greatcft part of the 
Bombay council ; like him, too eafily truft- 
ing to outward appearance, they imagined 
themfelves at Poonah from, the moment the 
miniftry quarrelled; the many tergiverfations 
and uncertainties which reigned in that Dur- 
bar did not open their eyes. Upon the firft 
ptofpecSl of fuccefs attending Ragobah's party, 
or rather thofe who ufed his name to com- 
pafs their ends in depriving their enemies of 
the power they aimed to aflume, they aban- 
doned themfelves to the flattering fcene of 


OF^ B O M B A Y. ill 

importance and credit accruing to them 
from fettling and giving a chief to an em- 
pire, and feared nothing but the diminution 
of glory which they might fjfFer from other 
perfons having a fhare in the enterprize. 
This muft have been the motive of their for- 
bidding the advance of the Bengal detach- 
ment by their firft orders, as well that of their 
hurry in planning and in executing the ac- 
companiment of Ragobah and reinftating 
him in the regency, although they knew that 
by the confinement of Morabah, Butchaba 
and their adherents, and the fmall degree of 
power Holcar had, the principal force on 
which they had' reckoned would be wanting. 

Their impatience exceeded that of Rago- 
bah ; to prevent delay by his objeftions to 
the treaty, they increaled the fums advanced 
to him J the march of the detachment and 
its daily progrefs was known to them, they 
might have calculated the diftance which 
each day diminished, and by a fettled corre- 
ipondence with Colonel Goddard, have carried 
on their plan fo that he might have co-ope- 
rated with them; with this precaution 
fuccefs was certain, but then the honour of 
that fuccefs muft have been attributed to hi.3 

O 2 ikill 

--*^ -■ 

ii2 A N A C C O U N 1* 

ikill in the es:ecution, and the wlfdom of the 
Supreme council, in fending that detachment 
to their afliftance : this was a meafure from 
the beginning difagreeable to them, they 
were angered by the firft interpofition of that 
council which produced the treaty of Po- 
rounder, and that refentment was kept up by 
the exercife of the fuperiority given by the 
ad of parliament ; this appears through their 
minutes of council, and thofe fentiments 
helped to ftrengthen the others *• 

The ill-timed order given by Ragobah 
for the continuation of Morabah's confine- 
ment was another fatal flep ; the z€t itfelf 
might be called ingratitude to the man who 
firfl flirred in his favour, when he feemed 
forgotten and excluded for ever from all 


♦ In }\}(\\e to Mr. Draper, one of the members of the 
Bombay council, it muft not be omitted that he diflented 
not only from the firft refolution to forbid the advance 
of the detachment, but alfo from that of the i2ih of Ofto- 
ber 1 778, for condufting Ragobah to Poonah with an armed 
force ; he grounded ihisdiflention on, ift. Their departure 
from the conditions prefcribed by the fupreme council, 
" That their plan fliould not interfere with any engagc- 
** meat formed with Modagee ; that by advice from Eu- 
•^ rope, they Oiould be affurcd t*iat the force they fcnC 
" could be (pared without danger, that their engagements 
*' with Ragobah or Morabah Ihould not be hoftile to the 

^ Rajah 

OF ; BOM B AY. 213 

chance ;of a return to power ; and it ihewed 
^ a difpofition of miod which made not only 
Morabah*s friends averfe to him, but ilruck 
the other Indian chiej& as an indication of 
his delign to govern with the fame ftri£l:nefs 
he had before done, when his title in the 
minority of his nephews to the regency, and 
after the death of Naron to the PaifliwaChip 
was undifputed : this would have totally 
put an end to their icheme of independence, 
the maintenance of which is the moft defi- 
rable thing for the inhabitants of the dif^ 
tri£ts refpedlively bordering on the Mahratta 
dominions, and the particular intereft of the 
£ngli(h government in that region. The 
iituation of the countries of thefe princes 
ihews the probability of fuccefs in a fyftem 

«' Rajah of Berar."— id. Morabah and Butchaba being 
fliil under reftraint.— 3d. The diftance of the detachment 
bdng yet too great.-— 4th. There being a great deficiency 
10 the European force from the eftabliihoKUt ordered by 
the company,— ->he added, that although he was convinced 
of the neceffity of removing Nanah, and reinflating Rago- 
bah in the regency, it appeared to hhn that it might bt 
cffe&od with more propriety and greater probability of 
fuccefs, in about two months, as by that time they might 
hope the refiriftions, with refpeA to the Berar ncgociation, 
xnight be removed, and the detachment might arrive at the 
d^ftination ordered in July (in the neighbourhood of 
Poonah) and the company's (hips and thp iquadron might 
be with them. 

O 3 formed 



formed f6r that purpofer Separate treaties 
with each would ftrengthen and enable them 
to feiift the force of the Poonah Durbar^ 
which they would not fail to do whea 
they fouiid themfeJves fupportcd by. Englifh 

The proceedings of the council of Bom- 
bay have been related without the inter- 
ference of other matters^ that by an uninter-^ 
rupted narration they might appear clearly : 
it will be neceflary to refume thofe of th^ 
Supreme Council, and the a£J:a in confe- 
queiice, particularly the march of the detach- 
iiient commanded by Colonel Leflie through 
the heart of Indoftan ; a meafur^ of high im- 
portance, the effeft of fchemes long revolved 
in the mind of its author, bold in its con- 
ception, and continued, with perfeverance 
from the conyifition of its utility : the events 
finally produced by it muft decide whether 
ralh and precipitate, or political and truly 
calculated for the good of the company, as 
well as for the fame attendant on fo high an 

' This meafure had not paffed in council 
without great debate. From its novelty, 


OF Bombay; 215 

(the lafual manner of lending troops having 
been by fea) the general ignorance of the 
country to be paffed over, and of the relations 
;and ifit^refts of its princes and chiefs, th^ ap- 
parent danger from Jthe heat of the clirnate, 
the . deiay which muft l>e • occalioned by the 
rains., the. inconvenience and difficulties which 
might arife from waint -of provifions and af- 
fiftance from the powers , of the country or 
perhaps, from their, op^ofition, it was lop):ed 
on as impradlicable ; but for the reafons above 
related the council determined it not only 
pra(9:icabldbut expedient. The neceflary pre- 
cautions were, takem. with the princeb of the 
countries through which the detachment wa^ 
tppafsiby' apprizing, them of the. xlefign of 
it& match, and its paci£c' difpoiitions to th}^m) 
and requeuing their affiftance in furnifhing 
provifions : particularly letters were wrU'teu 
tQ thje Paifhwa and. his miniftry fully men*^ 
tinning thefe matters, and Mr. Moftyn was 
inftru<3:ed to affure them of the council's re-> 
folution to abide by the treaty of Porounder, 
to explain the neceffity of protecting the {et- 
tlement of Bombay from foreign invafion,^ 
and to. dcfire they would give orders to their* 
chiefs dependent on the Paifliwa not to mo- 
leil the army in thfcir. march, but to fupply 

O 4 . them 


rtiem with what affiftance they might ftand 
in n€ed of. 

On th€ 2 3d of February 1778, refolutiori^ 
having palled in council for the appoint- 
ment of Colonel Leflie to this command, or- 
ders were ifiued in confequence for the troops 
to aflemble on the weftern frontier of the 
province of Owde, either at Corah or in the 
neighbourhood of Culpee, as the command- 
ing officer might chufe. 

■ — . « 

Each fepoy battalion confifted of ieven 
hundred men, rank and file, one captain, ten 
fuhalterns Europeans, with the ufual number 
of native officers ; and tv^o pieces of artillery, 
iix pounders, were attached to each battalion. 

The r^ment of cavalry confided of five 
hundred natives, commanded by Captaifn 
Wray; the body of horfe from the province 
of Owde was compofed of natives of the pro- 
vince of Candahar, and was of the fame 
Arength : this corpt had been in the fervice 
of the late Sujah Dowlah Nabob of that 
province, and was continued by his Ion. It 
was commanded by a very gallant officer, 
who was alfo a native of Candahsir. 



The aitiileiy confided of four light twelve 
pounders, and two howitzers, beiides the two 
fix pounders above-mentioned attached to 
each battalion of fepoys : it was commanded 
by Major Baillie, one captain, and four Tubal- 
terns, and a company of natives were appointed 
ibr the fervice of the whole. 

Lieutenant Colonel Fortman was field 
engineer, with an afiiflant, a quarter-mafter- 
general and deputy ; and all the other officers 
belonging to the ftafF, and perlbns neceflary 
to be employed in the &veral departments of 
^ores and provifions were named and chofen 
by the commander ; to whom likewiie un» 
limited authority was given to order fuch 
ftores, and in fuch quantities, as he might 
deem uecefiary for that fervice. 

On the 1 2 th o£ April, the firft divifion of 
the troops arrived at their rendezvous at Co- 
• rah, where the whole were afiembled on the 
25th, when Colonel Leflie joined. From 
the 5 th of May to the j 8 th, the troops were 
filing off by detachments, with their baggage 
and ftores, to^a pafs on the banks of the Jum- 
na, oppofite Culpee. The diftance between 
Corah and Culpee is about forty miles ; that 


a 1 8 A N A C C Q U N T 

river forms the wcftern boundary of the do* 
mmiofus of the JNabob of Owde. 

The town and fort of Culpee, which ftand 
on the other fide of the river; are the eaftern 
boundary, of a fmall diftria,. bordering on 
the Bettwah. Nuilah*, oxi the other fide of 
which lies the Boondelchund country, begin- 
ing at Jallapoon This diftrift was poflHied 
by Gungadur Punt, the commander of the 
Mahratta force. in that part of Indoftan : he 
had received orders from Nanah to ufe all his 
endeavours to prevent the progrefs' of the 
Englifli march; * He. had with him his bro- 
ther Ballagee, whole dominions were further to 
the weft, and through which the route of the 
detachment lay; This man had great power 
and influence over his brother, and through 
the whole country, his cunning was great, 
and he laid the fcbeme of obftruding us by 
every way preferably to arms,, and to have 
recourle to thole when bis deception failed of 
fuccefs : in conlequence vaqueels were lent 
from both thefe chiefs to Colonel Leflie with 


affuranees of their mftfters confent and fon- 

: - currence 

« '• 

. *^villahis^ cut from a river by which grouods arC' 

» i. 

OF F O M B AY. ai^ 

curirence to the march of the detachment, 
with the promife of a plentiful fupply of 
provKiona through their country, and Balla* 
gee advifed him to go to the Nebuddah by 
the way of Mow, and offered himfelf to be 
his conductor. Colonel Leflie not yields 
111^ to theie fpecious appearances, deter** 
mined to pttxreed warily, for their vaqueels 
were not impqwered to conclude any treaty^ 
Of even* to tceat, therefore everything was 
vague and fuipicious. The governor of the 
fort of Culpee by his behaviour fhewed how 
neceilary caul^bnwas, and how little declarati- 
ons were' to be relied on. Application had been 
made to :him for the aid of his boats in paff* 
ing the river ;. this he not only refufed, but 
as the worknien were employed in repairing 
thofe which had been colle6led> ^ party de- 
tached from the fort began to fire on them ; 
this was j:eturncd by the covering party, which 
with a few rounds from two pieces of artil- 
lery, obliged them to retire. 

Colonel Leflie fending for the vaqueels, 
who were ft ill in camp, reprefented to them 
the treachery of fuch coriduift, and at the 
fame time informed them of his intentions 
to crofs the river next day ; the vaqueels 



made excuies, begged for another day's delay, 
and propofed that he (hould crofs two and 
thirty miles higher up the river; Colonel 
Leflie rejeded this propoial, adding his 
reafons, with which they ieemed perfeftly 
fatisfied, and defired leave to go and inform 
their mafters, promiiing to return in the 
evening with aa anfwer, which not being 
performed^ gave caufe to fufpoft that foniie 
oppofition would be made to the pafiage of 
the riven 

The next morning, the i pth of May, at 
dawn of day, three battalioiis of fepoys 
the firft, fourth, and feventh, with their 
artillery arrived at the pafs. The firft 
divifion crofled the river, and immediately 
formed ; Colonel Goddard who commanded, 
feeing fbme troo|)s aifembling in his front, 
fent a meflage to their chief, deiiring to pafs 
unmolefted ; tlie anfwer was, that they ihould 
come on : yet fbme fmall bodies of cavalry 
began to fire at a diflance on thofe troops 
that were crofling and forming. This was 
endured, until fome were wounded ; batteriea 
which had been placed to cover the landing 
of the troops were then opened, which very 
loon difperfed thp enenajr. That part of the 


O F B O M B AY. air 

troops \vhich had now pafled were ordered 
to advance towards the village of Culpee^ 
which was about a mile diftant, and Major 
Fullerton, with the grenadiers, to prevent 
any furprize, was direfted t6 make a move- 
ment to the left, but rather on their rear, 
both parties directing their march towards 
the' village, where they were to unite. From 
the place whence the grenadiers had made 
their movement^ the ground they had to pafs 
through was broken and uneven, with high 
banks and ravins, and the road fb intricate, 
that, after marching fome time, they found 
themfelves at a greater diftance from the vil- 
lage than when they firft moved ; they were 
then very brilkly attacked by a body of about 
twelve hundred Mahratta horfe. The men 
jbehaved with great fpirit and coolnefs, in 
particular the grenadiers of the fourth batta- 
lion. They begatif however to be preffed 
when the other part of that battalion with its 
artillery, fupported by the leventh, came from 
the village to their afliftance, and foon dcci- 
dfed the conteft. The enemy retreated with 
the greateft precipitation to a fort about fix 
miles diflant, where they had fent their ef- 
fe^s, and the troops were toQ much fatigued 
to purfue. A few grenadier fepoys were 

22a AN.* A c c 6 i; N r 

wounded ; the lofs of the enemy was much 
mom confiderable, and quiet poflfeffion was 
taken of the fort a«d village of Culpee, whieh 
they had evacuated. 

• This firft aft of hoftility was followed hy 
another vaqueel from the t?wo chiefs, dis- 
avowing, all knowledge of what had pafled, 
promifing to punifli the offenders, and fbli- 
citing friendfliip. Colonel Leflie defirous of 
adhering to the fpirit of his inftrudions, ac- 
cepted their ^xcufes, propofed terms of agree- 
ment^ and while thefe were adjufting, the re- 
mainder of the detachment, with the artil- 
lery, baggage, and ftores, crofled the river. 
The terms of the agreement were, that the 
troops fliould have an unmolefted paljage, 
that they (hould be fupplied with provifions 
and neceffaries at a proper price, and that the 
fort of Culpee fhould be k§pt by an Englilh ' 
guard, as a fecurity for the performance of 
of the agreement. The poffeffion of it to be 
returned when the detachment had reached 


At this junfture a letter was received from 
the prefident and council of Bombay, with 
diredions for the detachment to halt until 


O F B O M B A Y. 223 

further orders, without mentioning any rea* 
Ion for {o unexpedled a njeafure : advice^ of 
this, with an account of the agreement, fol- 
lowed thofe of the Ikirmifh which had been 
con^naunicated by Colonel Leflie to the Su-* 
preme Council- He informed them at the 
fame time, that* as the ground about Culpee 
\vould not admit of an encampment, without 
great inconvenience, he would move about 
twenty miles further to the banks of the 
Betwah Nullah, a good iituation, on the fron- 
tiers of the Boondelchqnd cpuntry, where he 
would wait their further direjcHons. 

The Supreme Council had in the begin- 
ing of May received letters from Bombay and 
Poonah, relating the revolutions in that Dur- 
bar, when Morabah and the other chiefs had 
in all likelihood overturned Nanah and Sac- 
caram, and become the mafters of that go- 
vernment, and afterwards had come to an 
agreement with them as before related. The ' 

Bombay council in their letters lamented that 
they Ihould have fo little (hare in the refto- 
ration of Ragobah, and that it ihould appear 
it could be effected without their afliftance. 
Thefe letters gave occafion to debates : a con- 
clufion was drawn from them, that the re- i 

eftablifliment I 


cftablifliment of Ragobrfi was a6tually efFe^ 
cd, which ftVent muft totally defeat any 
fchemes the French might have formed, and 
put an end to the negotiations of Nanahwith 
them, whereby the further progrefs of the 
detachment became unneceffary. It waa there- 
fore propofed, that orders (hould be lent to 
Colonel Leflie to fufpend his march, or if he 
had proceeded in it, to return to Culpec* 
But upon confideration that it did not from 
thofe letters appear that the affairs of the 
company in that part of India were in fuch 
fecurity as not to require aid, but on the 
contrary that the connexions of the French 
with the Mahratta Durbar were yet fubfift- 
ing, St. Lubin flill redding at Poonah, and 
the veffel which brought him into that coun- 
try, and had been freighted for China ac- 
companying Geneisal Belcombe inftead of pur- 
fuiug that voyage, being a ftrong proof that 
he had entered into the dcfign, and probably 
had gone himfelf to conduct or forward the 
negotiation; nor did the revolution appear 
certain, and If it was completed without 
the aid of the Bombay council, the fettle* 
ment could not be permanent ; Ragobah 
could never truft his perfon to his 
new partifans, formerly his enemies and 

betrayers 5 

t) 1? BOMBAY. 215 

betrayers ; hor could he reft fatisfied by the 
comproitxi(fe liiade with Na^ah who by his 
(Connexion with Hurry Furkia, the comman- 
der of the fortes, muft have an irreliftible 
fway, Fie therefore Would truft no friend but 
the Bombay fcouncil^ who had ever been 
iealous in his caufe; ndr would he venture' 
to Poonah without the affiftanceof an Engllfti 
rtiilitary force, which to obtain, he muft 
grant their conditions. It was prdper that 
they fliould have it in their power to adt {o 
confpicuouS ^ part and to keep up to i^-* 
The reinfdreienient would give that power, 
and the very idea of it rriight already havd 
had fome efFecl in the tranfa<9:ions at Poonah ; 
in fuch a crifisj to recall the detachment 
Would alarm friends and encourage enemies : 
upon the whole, if the fervice of it (hduld noc 
be^wanted^ nothing wduld have been loft by' 
its riot haviilg marched, and it might be ea-* 
fily recalled; but if once Withdraw/^Uj and 
its aid afterwards (hould be required, it Would 
be tdo late to afford it. The expe£lation of 
Indbftan demanded the profecution of this 
meafure. On thefe confideratidns it was de- 
termined the detachment (hould proceed. 

P Colonel 


Colonel Leflie's letter of the toth of May, 
giving an account of his pafTage, and the 
Ikirmifhes he had fuftained, occafioned frefh 
debates in the council. From the oppofitioa 
of the two chiefs at Culpec it was concluded 
that the whole march would be thus inter- 
rupted, and that, in prudence,, the army 
ihould proceed no furth^er, at leaft till th^ 
rains were over, as its fafety (on which that 
of Bengal depended) was hazarded by fuch a 
march from one fide of India to the other in 
fo unfavourable a feafon, and in jthe face of 
an enemy determined toppppfe it, who,.withr 
out ever coming to an engagement, might 
diftrefs, harrafs, and ruin them. It was on 
the other hand confidered that the diftridVs. 
which depended on the chiefs who had com- 
mitted hoftilities, extended but a (hort dif^ 
tance from Culpeq, that one week WQuld. 
bring them to Boondelchund, w:hole chief, 
was not fubjeft to the Mahratta empire ; 
the rout€ thence was through Bapaul, wliofe'. 
chief, a Patau, though ' he paid the thout, 
owned no dependance on Poonah; that the 
reft of the way lay through the dominions oft 
Modagee, whole ppwer was great, and friend- 
fhip certatn. As to rains, experience ha4. 
ihewn that the weather being cooled by" 


tkeiil' iS more fat^'ouiibre, and yfides: dtirfttg 
that feafbii they wcmlci' be* left expbled to at- 
tacks of caval?y. li vhs detemiriied ta 
Ivrife to Colonel Eeflie, apptoviiig hi^ coit-^ 
du6t, warning him to beware of treachery, 
and not to be induced by any fair appear- 
ahfce'td relai iri the condutfl he h^d prbpofed 
toward^ the- chiefs of the countries hd was to 
faft through; arid dirfedting^ that he fliould 
jgiv^e nbtice to Mr; Mbft'yn, the refident at 
Pobn^h, of his proceedings, and all fuch or- 
curenfces as niight ' r^qiiire explanation to 
that Burbar^ or the inrerpofition of their 
authority^ ia prevent future interruptions to 
his ' march. At the fame time letters were 
written to thd Paifhwa, giving a detail of 
what had happehed at the paffige of Jumna, 
declaring' a belief thiat thefe hoitilities weraf 
not committed by any authority fr'om ' hini 
or his rainifters, as they* corrld not have 
arifen from thofe who were on terms of 
friendfliip with the Engltfh J that the necef- 
{ity of felf-deftnce had occafioned the fending 
the detachment^ but the moft regular dilti^ 
pline and friendly conduft had' been r^com^ 
meiided to thfe commander- ; and it * wag re^ 
qu^fted thit fiich Injuiidtions might' be ifRxtA 
tci'th^ offlceirs of that govemnienit ai» tvtiuUl 

Pa ia 


in future prevent effeftually any. thing of the 
like nature. Mr. Moftjn was apprized of 
thefe letters, and directed to aft in confe- 
quence, and regularly to correfpond with 
Colonel Leflie. 

The advice of the order to flopping the 
march of the. detachment, by the Bombay 
council, was about the fame time received 
from Colonel Leflie and that prcfidency. The 
other part of their letter gave an account of 
the continuation of the uncertainty in the 
Poonah Durbar, and the imperfeft ftate of 
Ragobah's affairs there ; that General Bel- 
combe had returned to Pondicherry ; that 
the Ihip Sartine had landed military ftores, 
which were for the fervice of Hyder Ally; 
and that the French were deterred from pro- 
ceeding to Choul by the appearance of thq 
Englilh fqiiadron, Thefe advices were a- 
ground for a motion in the Supreme Coun- 
cil, that the detachment fliould be recalled to 
the , Bengal fide of the Jumna, for to flay in 
an enemies, country expofed the army to 
dangers produifliveofhoftilities, which might 
bring on a general war, and if they remained 
in Boondelchund, that country rnuft be ruined. 
It was iniiftqd that the principal reafon hi- 
,- : therto 


therto alledged for this meafure, which was 
the effed of French negotiation with the 
Mahrattas was yanifhed ; for General Bel- 
combe having fent a (hip with warlike ftores 
to Hyder Ally, who was aftually at war 
with the Mahrattas, how could French in- 
trigue, if it ever had exifted, have any effe£t? 
On the other hand it was at-gued, that being 
but thirty or forty kofs from the borders of 
Owde, the army was equally fafe and ready 
either for defence or attack ; and that upon 
confidering the whole context of that part of 
the Bombay letter which related to General 
Belcombe, it was evident that the French were 
deterred from proceeding to Choul, by the 
appearance of our fquadron. That Mr. Mof- 
tya's letter mentioned St. Lubin being ftill 
at Poonah, favoured with the fame counte- 
nance, notwithftanding Mr. Moftyn*s remon- 
ftrance. It was therefore plain that the fame 
caufe exifted, and there was the fame danger 
from its confequence. On thefe reafons Co- 
lonel Leflie's intention of moving to the Bet- 
wah river for his encaippment was approved,, 
and he was prohibited from moving further 
until he (hould receive orders to that efFe£t. 
The council directed the officer commanding 

P 3 at 


at Culp^p Jto retain the pp^pipn qf it unjil 
further p/d^rs- 

Terms qf agre^rpent jliaying been finally 
^djttfted between Colonel Leflicj and the fwo 
chiefs, prders wpre given for the naarch of 
the fixfi jdivifion, Donfifting pf the firft, fourthji 
an^ .ieyenth battalions of fepoys, who fet out 
at t^p p'cjopk in fhe morning, on the 2td of 
June, from Culppe. Fpr the.firft five miles 
fjbe march was much impeded by the narrow- 
nefe of the road, ^nd t)ip yery uneven brolcea 
gipund of the couptry, the face pf which 
exhibited a mofl fiiigul^r appearance, being 
^ickly interfperfed with JiiHocks pf conckar, 
in tyhich neither fhrub, or blade of grafs was 
to be feen. In tjie language of the country 
conckar literally f ranflated mean? cinder. The 
ipatter of which thefe hillocks were compofed, 
ieemed rather of that kind which we term 
fcoria, fbmething like what is thrown out of 
furnace^ in which iron ore is fmelted ; the 
difficulties arifiyg from ^^e nature of ground, 
jverc increafed by the extreme heat of the 
weather, apd a \yant of water. At feven 
in the morning they came to a well, which 
was ynfortunately filled up; at nine, two 
yillages a little way to the right and left on 


O \F BOMBAY. 231 

the line of march, gave hopes of relief, but 
the quantity that could be got from thence 
was fo fmall, and the eagernefs of the troops 
fo great, that it proved of little benefit. At 
a quarter after eleven they at length reached 
the village of Murgong, where they found a 
fupply from feven or eight wells, which had 
not been filled iip. The diftance from Cul- 
pee to that place was not more than fixteea 
miles. It is to be feared that thefe difficul- 
ties proceeded from want of attention, and 
not having taken even common precautions 
to prevent them. Fortunately this error did 
not prove fo fetal as it was at firft feared; 
only twenty fepoys, and about as many of 
the followers of the army, funk under the 
fatigue ; a nuniber of European officers fickr 
entd^ but all recovered. Captain Crawford 
excepted, who commanded the fourth batta- 
lion of fepoys, whofe lofs was great, and uni- 
*verfally lamented. 

On the 5th of June Colonel Leflie re-^ 
ceived letters from Bombay, countermanding 
the orders before given by them for the halt 
of the detachment, thefe were dated the 4th 
of May ; in confequence he refumed his 
m^rch after a few days refl. 

P 4 Th« 

zSt AN A C C O U N T 

The notice of this countermand was znt 
nounced at Calcutta at the fame time that the 
relation of the march from Culpee was re- 
ceived from the army; this i^ad been prer 
ceded by private letters, which reprefented 
the evils attending it, beyond the' reality ; 
thefe gave z gloom to the appearance of 
things, which was heightened to defpqndency 
by the news of the misfortune of the Britifti 
arms at Saratoga ; a propofal was made in 
council to recall the detachment, but it was 
not prefled, and the meafure continued, A 
caution was given to Colonel Leflie to avoid 
the route through Malva, where lay the 
country of Sindia, whofe Sincerity there was 
room to doubt of, and to proceed diredlly 
through Berar, unlefs Modagee fliould refufe, 
which was moft unlikely ; on the contrary, 
there was reafon even to tertainty to rely on 
a friendly reception from him, and beiides in 
in cale of a necelfity of recalling the detach-^ 
ment, they would, in that country be within 
the reach of orders. Soon after, upon the 
news of war commenced with France, orders 
were fent not to pafs beyond that province 
till further inftruflions Ihould h^. received 
from the Supreme Council. 


OF B O M B AY. 235 

On the 8th of June the firfl: divifion of 
the detachment marched to Jetalpoor, where 
the whole joined on the 15th, This is a 
well-built town, it is lituated on the fouth- 
weft bank of the Betwah NuHah, a pleafr 
ing river, whofe water, perfe^ftly clear, runs 
over a bed of gravel, the depth about two 
feet only, though the banks are remarkably 
high. It takes its rife from a lake calle4 
Saugree, and after a courfe of about one 
hundred and fixty miles, empties itfelf into 
the Jumna, near Bibbipour ; the country 
through which the army pafled, was open, 
and the roads good, but no trees were feen 
in it. On the i6th, the whole army 
jiiarpKed toward? Cbatterpoore. 

Notwithftanding the agreement entered 
into between Colonel JLeflie and the two 
chiefs, before the march from Culpee, he 
had caufe to fufpecl duplicity ; a backward- 
nefs to fulfill the terms appeared in their 
whole conduft, and fubfequent events fhewed 
that the offers n^ade by Ballagee were meant 
to deceive. The principal Bajah of Boondel- 
chund was Aiproud Sing, who was of the 
.age of fifteen, and had upon the death of 
jiis father, about fix' years before, been by 


jR34 A N A iC C O U N T 

tiie contrivance of the minifters of that prince 
advanced to the fucceflion which they wreik^ 
«d from his elder brother Sunret Sing, as 
nveil as all the treaiure. This jurtto now 
governed that country, with them Ballagee 
had great Intereft, and he exerted all his in^ 
^oence to the prejudice of the Eiiglift, re- 
jprefenting them as attached to Sunret, and 
fea^iog 9 detign to place him in the Raja- 
Ihip, Sunret had not lain quiet ; he had 
a confiderable number of men in his fer- 
vice, and had made feveral efforts to recover 
his right, which to that time had been un- 

On the 2 2d, the detachment had advanced 
to Rheat, twenty- four miles diftant from 
Jetalpoort Though Colonel I^eflie had not 
met with any pbftrudion, his fufpicion of 
the intentions of the Boohdelchund chiefs 
obliged him to move with great caution, be- 
lides which the intenfenefs of the heat occa- 
iioned fon>e flownefs. About the 2qth of 
June, on the eaft fide of the Belah, the ther-^ 
mometer rofe to 102 degrees, and on the 
weft fide jto 107 and a half: and frotfn the 
middle of May it was not ever lower than 
^8 degrees, T^b nfadc the nights very diCr 


O F B O M B AY. g^$ 

^graeable^ as the ufual remedy of wetting 
the Qutfide of the tent could not at that tln^e 
te \jfed *. 

Colonel Leilie had now received letter^ 
from Mr. Moftyn, who then was at Poo- 
iiah, inclofing paflports, and orders for zCr 
iiftance from Holcar and Sindia in his niarch 
through their refpeflive territories ; but he 
had alfo received advices of a force being 
CoUeded bet\yeen Chatterpoore and Poonah 
on the banks of the river Cane, where they 
had taken poft under the command of their 
feveral chiefs Ballagee, Anaroud Sing, and 
others, bi^t with what intention was not 

The troops moypd from Rheat on the 
^4th, and the 27th reached Seerenagur, forty- 
four miles diftant, a well-built fort of ftone, 
fituated on a commanding height. They 
made halt here till the ift of July, when 
they moved to Mulhefra fix miles from 

* Thefe beats are during the reign of the land winds. 
A din^inution of them is obtained by keeping the outfide 
pf the teot coatinually wet. Liquors are cooled by wrap- 
ping a wet napkin round the botde; and hanging it ii| 
the wind : it is remarkable that When the cooling winds 
blow this methpd hath not the fame effeA. 



Chatterpoore. Here a meflenger came from 
Amroud Sing with offers to fupply provi- 
lions, if the detachment would take the route 
he fhould direft, which was towards tlje 
fame parts of the country as had been recom- 
mended by Ballagee, and he concluded by fay- 
ing, they muft not pals through Chatterpoore. 
The troops halted one day, to give time for 
an aufwer to this meflage, which confifted 
in repeated declarations of peaceable inten- 
tions, and of the attention that fliould be 
had to the fafety and protection of the inha- 
bitants, but that the troops- could march by 
110 other road than Chatterpoore. 

On the 3d the army marched to Chat- 
terpoore, and encamped fouthward of the 
town, between two hills^ having that town 
in the rear, the town of Mow three cofs to 
the weftward, and Rajah Gur about feven to 
the eaftward. The place was found aban- 
doned by all but very few inhabitants, fome 
of whom were merchants. Three heavy 
contributions had been laid, and partly col- 
ledted from the people, for the purpofe of 
pppoiing the march ; and that the Englifli 
fhould not procure any aid there, feveral of 
the ripheft nierchants had been fent in irons 



to Rajah Gur, and all were ordered to quit 
the place on pain of the moft fevere military 

This hoftile appearance confirmed the in- 
telligence Colonel Leflie received of the dif- 
pofition of the troops in that diftrift under* 
their feveral leaders; a party of 700 ca- 
valry, 2000 infantry, with nine pieces of 
artillery were ported at Mow, under the 
command of Hamet Cawn, who was joined 
by Gudd Sing with his force, and was with 
the utmoft diligence repairing and adding to 
th^ fortifications of that place ; on the road 
to Rajah Gur, about fix miles on this fide, 
they had an advanced guard, and had made 
a fence acrofs the road for their fecurity ; 
thefe were fupported by a party of a thou- 
fand horie, and as many foot, poiied near 
the fort of Rajah Gur on the weft fide of it, 
under the command of three chiefs ; be- 
^ tween Rajah Gur and the river Cane Balla- 
gee was ftationed with another body of ca- 
, valry and infantry ; and on the other fide of < 
the river, at the bottom of the hills oppofite- 
to a pafs four miles from the river, and fix 
from Pennah, Rajah Amroud Sing hadtakea 
ppft- with' 500 cavalry, 4000 infantry, and 





43* A f^ A C C O U N t 

twenty^ pieces of cannon ; orders had beett 
fent to the villages rounds forbidding the in- 
habitants to fupply the conVoy with provi- 
fions on pain of death ; the few reniaining 
merchants were ordered to fell off their ef- 
fedsy and remit the money to the Rajah,* 
And then to leav^ the town immediately. In 
this fitdation, on the fourth of July, an^ 
fwers were received from Ballagee and Am- 
roud Sing ; that from Amroud plainly ap- 
J3eared dictated by the former, and meant 
only to gain time and amufe fill every thing 
was ready for an efFe<3:ual oppofition : as for 
his own it threw off the maik ; in a ftile o£ 
contempt and indifference, he wrote that' the 
detachment might march what road it pleafed ; 
at the fame time he declared to his officers^ 
that he had written fo> but that he wo^ld 
die on the fpot rather than fufier it to pafs 
by Sagur, which was the only road novf' 
left, unlefs they retreated and took- the route 
by Janfy, which would have favoured the 
defigns of the two Rajahs, and for that pur- 
pofe had been recommended by Amroud in 
the laft letter fent by him^ 

^At this junftur^ two Rajahs of BdondjeU 
chund^ Gomman Sing and Commah Singer 


O^ BOMB A.Y. 439 

lent their Vaqueels to Colonel Leflie : they, 
had formisrly been difpoflefledof.foine^of their 
territpry by the family of Gudd^Sing^ Balla- 
gee had fummoned them to meet him, in 
confideration of which he promifed a reftora- 
tion of this territory^ but beTog tardy » in 
the execution of this promljfe, they with-* 
held their aid, and now folicited alliance^ 
to gain, the Englilh protection, offering, 
pknty of grain which the villages around 
abounded wifh, aqd defired fafeguard : RaJ^h 
Sunret Sipg, brother of Amroud made the 
like offers of fupplying provifions^ and with 
the fanpLe requf^ft of fafegu^rds ; and this 
chief's Vaqueel having. prefled that his niafter 
(hould join the Englifh army, Colonel. Leflie, 
that he might by that means not only have 
an iqcreafe of affiftance, but, to fecure Gom- 
m0p . and Comman Sing who were very much, 
attached to him, wrote to him defiring himi- 
tq join, and fafeguards were fent to feveral. 
vijlage? belonging to. thole Rajahs ; but they 
w^re . immediately driven away by a p^rty 
frpnsi the garrifon of Mow, who,, not con- 
tilted with tliis infult, drove off" three hun- 
dred bullocks loaded with grain , for' th^' 
camp, fome of th^ . haggtigg can^els^, ai^i i 
vfQVLixdsAvtmxy pf: thfe Jf|rv^n«s,anfj;foil0wersj 


HO AN AC C d UN t 

of the army. The Candaharian cavalry w^re 
immediately detached, and came up in time 
to relcue the greateft part of the plunder 

It was now plain why Batlagee ha(d re* 
commended the march through Mow,- and 
that the fcheme was laid to purfue every 
means of annoying the detachment^ and that 
all the moderation hitherto fhewn was with- 
out fuccefs ; notwithftanding whieh^ and 
thefe repeated ads of violence, to avoid the 
imputation of having begun hoftilities, Co- 
lonel Leflie determined to wait for an an- 
fwer to his laft reprefentations before he be- 
gun to ad. But intelligence was now 
brought to him, that fome parties had got 
into his rearj on the road he had marched^ 
with an intention of cutting off his commu- 
nication with Culpee. This was too foon 
verified, by advices received that Captairi 
Monro, cx)ming up with a fmall party to join 
the camp, had been attacked, and after mak- 
ing as gallant a reiiftanee as poffibl6, had 
been grievpufly vvounded, moft of his party 
killed, all his own, and fome baggage belong- 
ing t9 the army, plundered and taken. The 
Candaharian horfe,' and four companies of 


if B d M B AV. Ht 

ftiK>ys, with a furgean, Were imroisdiately 
<}cUche4 in hdpes of being in time to favel 
bixni but in vatn« He had been left foj^ 
4ead in the field ; but a Elramia J^eliig ibioe 
r^ojains of life in hia^y had giv^n him re* 
fiige in $ little fort npar the place of ad:ioti^ 
^hjsre he femaine4 for two .d^y$ ; at the en4 
^f livhidi foo^ of thefe barbarians returned^, 
fbfCied him firom the Bramin, and in cold 
blood j^utchered hio) in m ;^djoining wood* 
Hif iervatit, who had efcaped, brought this 
intlmCholy acpount of his mailer^^ fate to 
tbia di^tachnleskt which he met on the road^ 
and which now returneid to <:ampf While 
they related this cataftrophe^ advice was 
brougiil: that a party from Mow had driven 
off all the cattle for Carriage belonging to the 
aro^y j:hat were grazing at fonoie diilance. 
The pticqwts of the Une^ and all th^ ^avaky^ 
W^re fcnt in purfyjt ; they fbon came up 
with th^ plundejr^ra^ aud recovered the ^attle^ 

Coimi^l hdAie^ finding how^ unavailing 
all Jjjj /epmfentations bad proved for redrefa 
of outrages^ deterjiaioed to repel them b/ 
fpcce^ dad 69 djdod^ the pa^ ty under Ha-» 
met C^wwi from Mow- Colonel Goddar4 
wad ai^pointaed for thh hn^kfy with the fifths 

242 A N A C C O U N T 

fixth, and feveiith battalion of lepoys, their 
artillery, and two twelve pounders. The 
regiment of cavalry under the conamand of 
Captain A(h marched in the rear^ and the 
Candaharian horfe were divided in front and 
on the flanks, at half a mile's diftance, to 
reconnoitre the country, and prevent the 
enemy from receiving any intelligence of the 
party's approach. The road was found much 
broken up, and worfe than had been reported : 
this, with a heavy fall of rain, fomewhat 
retarded the march, infomuch that daylight 
appeared when the ' troops were yet a mile 
diflant from the place. 

Lieutenant Colonel Parker, who led the line, 
diredled Lieutenant Lucas to take pofleflion 
of a mofque on the right, which was inime- 
diately executed, under the fire of the enemy. 
From this place they had a full view of 
the town, which flood upon very irregular 
ground afcending and defcending ; it was 
walled round and encompaffed by a rampart 
and breaft-work, in thele there were breaches, 
and one particularly through which ran the 
road. The rampart was commanded by 
high ground behind,- being within reach of 
mulketry: on thefe hills the enemy had 



pofted troops, and on a hill oppofite the 
breach, through which the road ran, therq 
was a piece of artillery* 

A large tank of water lay on the right of 
that breach, and extended along the fide of 
the road; this^ together with hills on the 
left, formed the pafs which led to the en-* 
trance of the town : the difficulty of the ap- 
proach through this was increafed by hills ia 

Colonel Goddard with the advanced guard 
marched up the road to attack the breach j 
which he entered under a heavy fire, and par- 
ticularly from the piece of artillery oppofite 
to it, which was very well ferved. One of 
the tumbrils happening to ftrck in the breach ^ 
fbme of the troops perceiving another open- 
ing towards the left^ which led to a hill oii 
that fide, filed off, and gained the hill after 
ibme irefiftance ; the other part of the troops 
were obliged^ by the tumbril flicking yet ia 
the way, to get through the breach by the 
Indian file * : three conipanies of the feventh 
were ordered to attack the heights ; the re- 

* Man. by man fingly, 

Qz maindei; 

^44 A N A C C O U N T 

mainder of the troops, as they arrived, form* 
ing and fupporting them ; after much dif* 
ficulty from a fharp refiftance, and the 
nature of the ground, which often obliged 
them to crawl on hands and feet, they fuc- 
ceeded, having driven off thofe who were 
pofted there ; by this the accefs to the town . 
was free. 

Before this could be df!e£led, Cokmei 
Goddard had pufhed on to fecond the attack, 
by forcing the pafs, where he fuftained a 
very heavy £re, and had his borle (hot under 
him in two places : however he forced his 
way through the town in puriuit of the fly* 
ing enemy ; he had not advanced five hundred 
yards, when another range of hills prefented 
themfelves, on which the enemy appeared 
with Ibme cannon. Theyircre foon dil^ 
lodged and fled over the plains The Can* 
daharian cavalry had unluckily loft their 
way and were not of any fervice in the 
purfuit, which fell to the fliare of the re- 
giment of cavalry, and would have been 
more efibftual had the others conie up. 
On the fide of the Engiilh the lofs was ia- 
confiderable, being only about fix fepoys 
killed and nineteen wounded ; the enemy 


O F B O M B A y. 245 

fufFered very coniidcrably. Colonel Goddard 
took pofleffion of the place with nine pieces 
of cannon, with fome tumbrils, ftorcs, and 
ammunition : the troops behaved with great 
ipirit and rcjlblution* This blow had the mofl: 
fortunate effect. Ballagee, Amroud Sing, and 
the other chiefs called in all their parties, 
croflbd the river Cane, and took poft with 
their whole force collected on the other 
fide, nearly oppofite to Rajah Gur. By this 
retreat the country round Chatterpoore re- 
mained undifturbed, and the camp was plen- 
tifully fupplied with provifions*. Defer* 

* The return of the troops compoftng the detachment, 
v4th their ienrant& and followers, (ipnt by Colonel Lellie 
from Chatterpoore* 

Cavakjr ifi regiment 
Artillery 8 th company 
lo&ntry 6 battalions 
Head quarters and? 
brigade ftaff 3 
Nabob cavalry 
With the field engine^ 

Grand total 

The Bazars or markets, with their nepeflary attendants 
for procuring th^ fupplies of provifions, ^e not included 
in this; they are eftimated at 12,000, 

As there hath b^een no want of proriHon during the 
whole march, the nature of the country may be judged of 
from this return^ as wcll^s that of an Indiau army. 

0^3 ^iw^ 





Servant^ and 













. , {■ 1 'J ff 





246 A N A C C O U N T 

I ^ 

tions, which happened about this time, mado 
an ex^niple of feverity ncceffary : the exe* 
CUtion of one fepoy only prevented the evil 
^ from increaling. Shortly after the fourth 
and fixth battalions of fepoys demanded in 
an irregular planner, an increafe of allow- 
ance, on account as they pretended of the 
high price of provifions : thofe who ap- 
peared moft forward were immediately con- 
fined; the battalions were ordered under 
arms, and on the reprefentations of Colonel 
Godclard, who was fent to them, all appear- 
ance of difcontent cealed ; and after making 
proper fubmiffion for th^ irregularity of their 
application, they remained perfedtly fatif- 
fied to wait the decifion . of the Supi-eme 
Cpuncil, before whom their claims were to 
be laid, Th^ anfwer from them was a pe^ 
remptory Ipirited refufal, which had all the 
effedt that could be defired, as the demand 
was never after renewed. 

The army had no^ riemainefi inaSive 
and undifturbed fince the i oth of July ; 
jdpfing that period nothing material appears 
to have occurred ; the letters from ColoneJ 
. Leflie to Calcutta contain only a de- 
tail of negotiations with Amroud Sing, ber 



gun, broken off, and renewed, and a men- 
tion of fome obftrudions to his march, from 
the rains and the fwelling of the rivers and 
Nullahs thereby, without any other reafou 
given for this delay, 

, On the 1 2 th of Auguft, the Rajahs Gona* 
mon and Con^man Sing, who had Co early 
ofiiered their fervice, withdrew from the 
qamp \yith their forces during the night, 
without having given any previous notice of 
their intentions. This fudden defeftion was 
fbon found. to be owing to the intrigues of 
Amroud Sing ; letters which the elder bro- 
ther Sunret Sing had intercepted and com- 
municated to Colonel Leflie difcovered this : 
he thereupon determined to march towards 
Rajah Gur, propofing there to qrofs the ri- 
ver, and force Amroud Sing either to come to 
an engagement, or retire. Orders were given 
for the artillery taken at Mow to be deftroy- 
ed, and for the detachment left there to joint 
the army, which was efieded on the 1 4th. 

This long halt at Chatterpoore was unac- 
countable. Colonel Leflie had been repeatedly 
warned by the Supreme Council againft tak- 
ing part in the quarrels which the princes 

QJ4 ^^ 

J4B A N A C C U N T 

or chiefs of thofe countries thtxmgh which 
he was to pafs might h^ve in theit f^miltes, 
and therefore ought not to have been 6e» 
taiped by any propolal made by Svtnfet Siog, 
or other chiefs to obtain his aififtance againft 
Amroi)d Sing i yet this feems to have been 
the only obied in his view during that pe-f 
riod. TThe fuppofition sjioft favourablte to 
hitn Was, that after the tinpfovo^cd cijmity 
ihewn by Amrowd it might feenti polhic to 
eticpyrage the ofler of friendihip of a compe-? 
titpr, which ftep, by intimidating the Rajah, 
might change his meafures, aijd ittfute fop- 
|)Iies of prpvifion. If his motiye went farr 
thi^r he w^s gailty of politive dlfobedience : 
in th;s uncertainty the Supren^e Council fu- 
fpended their decifion upon this part of hi? 
eonduft, {q little aniwering theit expe^- 

On the 15 th of Auguft the $rmy bfcgjm 
ftithx itiarch towards Rajah Gur , tdiich they 
feached on the 1 7th, the drftiflcer is about 

twenty miles from Chfitterpoore. Rajah 
Cjttr is art aQtient falace flrrrotinded with 
high walls, handfomely ofnameftted within 
^nd without, fituared on the (rde of aft higii 
\\\\\^ two miles frorii the river Gaiie, a largs 



t&wtk (preading itl^lf on a plain to the ibuth<« 
1^ of the hill 

Colonel Leflie, with the qtrarter-mafter 
general, and the advanced guard, went to 
tiew the ground for an encampment as near 
as poffible to the river. Upon their appear* 
lance the enemy of the oppofite fide began to 
fire (inartly from fix or feven pieces of can- 
non ; but without any eSk&y as the troops 
werp foon covered by the advantage of a hol- 
low way. Orders were immediately fent to 
bring up twp twelve, two fix pounders, and 
a howitz : as foon as thefe were placed the 
pannon^de was returned, and a few carcaf!e$ 
thrown froni the howitz fet fire to the huts> 
which were foon confumed, and obliged the 
eponoy tp remove to a greater diftance : ground 
for the encampment was then taken, out of 
the reach of their artillery. The river Cane 
is here yeyy rapid, fulj of rocks, large ftones, 
and ftumps of trees ; In the time of the rains 
it is about fix hundred yards wide, but a few 
days pf fair weather ipakes it fordable jn fc- 
vera! places. 

While Colonel Leflie was making necef- 
^ry preparations for the pflage of ^he Tiver, 



terms of accommodation as ufual were pro- 
pofed by Amroud Sing, a negotiation entered 
into, and hopes entertained that the dilputes 
between the two brothers would be fpeedil/ 
and finally adjufted. But on the 31ft intel* 
ligence was received that a detachment of 
about 2000 cavalry and infantry, havii>g 
crofled the river, under the command of a 
chief called Puddam Sing, had marched mto 
the rear, with an intention of cutting off 
the communication with Chatterpoore, which 
he threatened to plunder, if any thing was 
fuffered to pafs through, or was fent from 
thence to the Englifli army, and had feized 
three or four hundred buljocks loaded with 
grain coming to the camp. 

On the I ft of September Captain Popham 
was detached after him with his battalion of 
fepoys, their artillery, and the Candaharian 
cavalry. In the evening he got intelligence 
of the enemy's fituation ; and early the next 
morning, leaving the battalion with their 
artillery to foUpw with as much expedition 
as poffible, he advanced with the grenadiers 
and cavalry. About noon he came in light 
of the. enemy, whom he found drawn up, 
and: jprepared to receive him ; they had dif- 


O F B O M B A Y. z^i 

pofed of their cavalry on their right, and 
their left, which . was compofed of their in- 
fantry was covered by a Nullah, and a copfe 
of thick underwood. Captain Popham di* 
vided his cavalry on the right and left of his 
grenadiers, who formed the center, and with 
•whom he advanced brijDkJy on the enemy, 
^receiving their fire, and relerving his until 
* he came elofe to their line, when it was 
poured in and repeated with fuch efFedl that 
they broke j they were purfued with great 
. ilaughter for fame miles by the Candaharian 
horfe. Among the flain twenty-four of the 
enemy were found on the fpot where they 
received the firft volley. The lofs on our 
:fide was one grenadier killed, four wounded, 
^and of the cavalry, two killed, and four 
.wounded. Some of the enemy retreated to 
a fort . called Gurgunge, which they aban- 
doned in the night ; Lieutenant Tifdale was 
woimded in reconnoitring it. Captlain Pop-* 
ham was ordered to remain in that neigh- 
bourhood to watch the motions of the enemy^ 

who feemed to be again aflembling. 

> < 

'A little before this the pofleffion of Culpefc 
•being now no longer thought neceflary, it 
was by order of the Supreme Copngil given 

:. up, 

25^ A N A C C O U N T 

up, and the Engiiih guard withdrawn : this 
ieemed for a little fpace to have reconciled 
Ballagee ; but the impediments thrown in 
the way of the detachment (hewed his infifi- 
cerity, and how little wa$ to be expeded 
from any negotiation with him, or with any 
of the chie& imdeif his influence ; as Am- 
roud Sing's minifters were (by it was vain 
to hope that he would conclude any efiedbial 
treaty, efpecially wiien one of the terms re* 
quired was a provifion for his elder brother, 
by yielding him a part of his dominion, yet 
he continually ient meflages of accommo- 
dation. It was plain the end finig^t was 
delay, this was feen through, but the de- 
lay mud: have taken place from the great 
rain which fwelled the river, and made 
it neceiTary to provide boats and rafits for 
the pafiage, and even then Colonel Leflie 
thought the rapidity was fuch, that he waited 
a day or two longer* He now xieoeived let- 
ter$ from the Hajah of Berar Moodagee 
B ofla, prefling his march to the Nerbuddah, 
ijontaining the moft friendly ofJers, and in- 
forming him that he had fent a perfon of 
confidence to n>eet him ori die banks of that 
river, where he would find every thing pre- 
pared for his prefent occafions, and that fu- 
ture accommodations (hould be furnilhed 



diroug^ his dcaninions* In the fame letter 
Moodagee expreifed with warmth the great 
fatisfa<9:ion he felt in the hopes of foon 
ieeing Mr. Elliott, who was then on the 
road to Berar : but unfortunately the public 
were deprived of his fervices and abilities at 
this critical jun&ure. 

He was feized on the 4th of September by 
a bilious fever, and inflajmmatlon of tlie liver, 
which . from the beginning had mortal 
fymptoms. The firft account of his illnefs 
was written by Mr. Farquhar his fecretary ; 
this letter was dated on the bank of a Nul- 
lah, two cofs to the e^hvard of Serinagur, 
the 9 th of September : from the fame place 
a ktter of the ijth, gave the melancholy 
jaccount of his death ; thefe advices were re-^ 
ceived at Calcutta the 5th of Odober. Some- 
thing of the character of this excellent man 
hath been already mentioned: much was 
expe^ed from his parts and talents cultivated 
with unremitted diligence before he went to 
Itidia, but as if the approach to the fun had 
Ib^aghtened the flame of genius^ he appeared 
fyt for any uisdertaking, almoft immediately 
after h'is arrival there. This cpuld not dcape 
MnHailini^s who cherifl^edand truftedhim ; 


±54 A N A C C O U N T 

during a fhort refidency in Europe in thcf 
year 17^6 his penetration, fagacity, and 
difcretion anfwered fully his friend's expedla- 
tiohs, who found tjie efFeft of them at his 

About the fame time as the letters front 
Moodagee were received, there came fome from 
the Nabob of Bopaul, through whofe territories 
the route of the detachment lay in the way 
to the Nerbuddah : they were in the moft 
friendly ftrain. Advice of thefe letters was 
fent by Colonel Leflie, who at the fame 
time mentioned the conclufion of treaties 
in his own name, and that of the Company 
with the feveral Boondelchund chiefs, the ne-» 
gotiation for which had lafled fo long ; yet 
he was fulpicious of Ballagee through whafe 
territory he was to pafs. 

The death of Mn Elliot tvas of the moft 
fatal confequence, there was not any perfofti 
who could well fupply his place, he poflefled 
the entire confidence of the governor general, 
and was looked on in that light by Moodagee ; 
a few days would have brought him to his 
court, where every thing might have been 
fettled before the arrival of the detachment* 



Now a length of time muft have paffed be- 
fore another perfbn could be properly in- 
ftrufted and reach Berar. 

The paft condudt of Colonel Leflie, on 
whom this negociation muft immediately de- 
volve, did not promife great fuccefs ; he had 
been from the beginning of April to the 
middle of September performing what might 
have been done in two weeks, having met 
but a trifling refiftance, and no caufe of delay 
appearing, but fettling diijputes and making 
treaties in the families of the princes through 
whofe country he had paflep, exprefsly con- 
trary to repeated inftruftions. The governor 
general was greatly enjoarrafled; he pro- 
poied, after much doubf^in his own mind, to 
let matters ftand £af fome time as they were, 
without fubftituting any perfon in the place 
of Mr. Elliot, and wait to fee what courfe 
Moodagee would take, and whether he would 
renew his applications : all his letters had 
lliewn a defire, and even impatience, to enter 
upon the buiinefs Mr. Elliot was charged 
with; the reafons which induced him to 
ibllicit an alliance with the Englifli fub- 
lifted ; it was therefore proper at that time 
to write to Moodagee, only mctfitioning the 



misfortune which had put a £top to iktit 
negotiation, and defiring for the prefent 
his affiftance for promoting the march of 
the detachment to its deftination* This oc- 
caiioned a renewal of altercations in the 
council : the debates in their confultadiQQs 
extend to whole volumes. This difTeience 
of opinion aro(e from the different prin« 
ciples on which the members reafoned : thoic 
adopted in the b^ianing of the pcefent admi- 
niftration invariably influenced tjbe opinions 
of one part of it upon every occafipn i peactf 
had been recomnoended from England as the 
great objeA^ therefore nodiiiig that could 
by any means tend to interrupt it was to be 
admitted : coniequeptly the icheme of ex^ 
tending their alliance to the different ilates 
of that region was dangerous ; intermeddling 
in their a^irs upoQ any difputesi eitiier in- 
ternal or between one {tzte and another^ per*" 
aiciouft ; di ads in con(equenoe, di£^Ksdi«- 
ence to the orders of the Diredtors ; of coude 
every meafure for that purpofe was to be <^« 
poled. On the other hand the gov^ernof" 
general and Mr. Barwell were of opinon^ 
that to maice the Englifli nation confiderabk^ 
and give its e>ft^bli3icx>ent ftability^ it 
was neceflary to extend its ii]^flaen€e ; . to 



have connections with all the princes of In- 
doftan, which ftiotild make them loolc up to 
it as the preferver of their relpeftlvc indepen- 
dence from that power, under whofe preffure 
they had groaned fo long. This fyftem hath 
already been detailed. From this difference 
of fyftems role a difference of opinions upon 
every political and military matter, not only 
on the firft mention of the plan, but oa 
each operation neceflary in the execution of 
it. Upon the firft advices from Bombay of 
the commotions in the Durbar of Poonah, 
the feconding the defigns of that council to 
take advantage of thofe diftra(3:ions was re- 
probated by that part of the council ; the 
projeft of fending the detachment acrofs the 
peninfula was called impradticable and fruit-, 
lefs, immoderate in expence, and produftive 
of war with every nation in India ; the al- 
liance with Berar, a meafure unneceflary, 
and big with mifchief. Nor was the danger 
from French influence, or the probability of 
an. attack upon Bombay by an expedition 
from the iflands, or other arrangements be- 
tween the Mahrattas and that nation, looked 
on as real, the cotijeftures were on the con- 
trary fide : on the other hand, the governor 
general grounded his ientiments and formed 

R hit 

258 AN A C C O U.N T 

his propofed fchem^s, aot only, on conjellure, 
but information which he could depend upon 
of the reality of the French minifters defigns. 
From fuch difference of opinion rofe per- 
petual altercations : the prefent misfortune 
which fufpended the negotiation for an al- 
liance with Moodagee was a ground to fup- 
pofe an annihilation of the projefit, and 
therefore to obje£t to the letter propofed, and 
to move that the whole fcheme ihould b^ 
difcontinued. The news received of the 4e- 
preffion of Ragobah's party at Poonah, the 
fufpenfion of aftion at Bombay, without any 
communication from them of aay future 
plan, and above all the fatsd delay of th? 
detachment having been upwards of four 
months from their crofling the Junxna to the 
banks of the Cane, were ftrong arguments 
for its recall ; for as . that diftance wa$ not 
above one hundred and twenty miles, at that 
rate, in what time was the detachment likely 
to arrive at Bombay ? even exclufive of apy 
check or delay to which it might be expofed 
from oppolition by enemies, it; ijiuft be a 
twelvemonth : how then could they be ufe- 
ful againft prefent dangers ? Therefore ad- 
mitting it neccflary to ilrengthen Bombay 


OF B O MB AY. 259 

againft an invafion, it remained tq bo proved 
that the detachment, In its intended route, 
would arrive there in time to anfwer the 
end propofed : and it was alledged that a 
more fafe method might be purfued by fend- 
ing a detachment of General Munro's army 
from Madras ; which might be fpared, as the 
fate of Pondicherry muft by that time be de- 
cided, by its being taken, or the defign given 
over : and if this muft be replaced, it might 
be done by the force in the northern circars ; 
which again, if necefiary, might be replaced 
from Bengal ; that mode was liable to fewer 
objeftions than any other, being fimple and 
cdy in its execution. 

To all this it was anfwercd, that although 
the death of Mr. Elliot deprived them of the 
advantage expelled from his abilities and 
the plenitude of his comniiffion, fbme advan- 
tage yet remained ; that the powers of the 
Mahrattas and the Decan were to be counter- 
poifed by alliances, which might disjoin the 
ftates compofing them, and unite fome of 
them to the Englifli ; that the interefts of 
Bengal and Bahar naturally led to fuch aa 
union ; that a ^fpenfion of that alliance did 
not annihilate the reafbns on which it was 

R 2 , originally 



originally grounded, or render the march of 
the detachment unrxeceflary : that future events 
were not to be judged of by paft errors, and 
a fuppofition that they would be fufiered to 
contuiue : that the march of. the detachment 
might have been made from Culpee to the 
banks of the Cane in ten days : that what- 
ever fervice. the detachment might aft in 
hereafter, whether for the reftoration of Ra- 
gobah, of in refifting a French invafion, or 
be recalled at a future period, the prefent 
continuation of its march was proper : that 
until the crifis which ihould determine its 
ultimate deftination, its fituation in Bcrar 
was central to all the Englifli fettlements ; 
it might be a check to the Poonah govern- 
ment if only meditating, or a defeat to de- 
ligns, if already formed by them. As to the 
propofal of fending troops from Madras, it 
was liable to yet more objeftions than had 
been urged againft'the march from Culpee. 
True, that in jsl right line, the diftance of each 
of thofe places from Bombay was nearly the 
fame ; but the route from Madras muft be 
traced along the coaft tothefouth, and round 
the country of Travancore to Anjengo, and 
from thence, either by a dangerous navigation 
along the Malabar coaft, or continued by 



land through the dominions of Hyder Ally ; 
whereas the road from Culpee deviated but 
a little from the right line, fo that with fu* 
perior difficulties the former would exceed it 
in length almoft one third, befides having 
marches of other troops to replace thofe ib 
detached from the Carnatic, 

In confequence of thefe arguments it was 
refblved that Colonel Leflie ihould profecute 
his march in conjunction with the troops of 
Moodagee, if he chofe to join • the detach- 
ment with any, and that he fliould obey the 
orders of the prefidency of Bombay for his 
deftination ; with a difcretionary power to 
fuipend his march after his arrival in Berar, 
if Moodagee did not join him with a force, 
or if he did not receive orders from Bom- 
bay : and letters were to be written to that 
council, informing them of thefe orders, and 
to defire that either upon their former plan, 
if fubfifting, or any new for the reftoration 
of Ragobah under the conditions before fli- 
pulated, or the neceffity of repelling a French 
invafion, which fhould require the progrefs 
of the detachment, even without the junc- 
tion of any other power in alliance with 
them, in any fach qafe only to command it 

K 3 tq 

-262. AN A C C O U NT 

to advance. The debates on this fubjeO: were 
further cdntinued, and at laft ended in a re- 
folution to recall Colonel Leflie. 

This was notified to him in a letter dated 
tlie 1 5 th of Oftober, wherein they alfo dif- 
avowed the treaty he had made with the Ra- 
jahs of Boondelchund, as made in direO; viola- 
tion of their orders, and he was commanded 
to deliver over the charge of the detachment 
to Colonel Goddard, or the officer next in 
command, and to repair without lofs of time 
to Calcutta, to give an account of his con- 
duft. Letters were alfo written to Colonel 
Goddard, inclofing copies of the inftruflions 
which had been given to Colonel Leflie, and 
repeating the feveral diredions which had 
been given him, as well in relation to his 
march, and the orders of the Bombay coun- 
cil, as to his tranfaftions with the Rajah of 
Berar, and a particular injunftion to recall 
any detachment that fhould have been made 
from the main body, and to keep the 
whole together. 

Colonel Leflie's death had, before this, 
put an end to all enquiries ; he had at laft 
given orders for the march on the 28th of 


t) F BOMBAY. a63 

September, but on that very day he was 
feifed by a bilious fever, of which he died, 
the 3d of Odlober. By this event the com- 
mand had already devolved on Colonel God- 
dard, a man whofe abilities have fhewn him 
equal to any undertaking. He immediately 
gave notice of Celonel Le(lie*s death, and his 
intention to march on with all poffible dif- 
patch, as loon as he ftiould, from the papers 
of the deceafed, have got information of the 
intentions of the board relative to that fer- 
vice, and taken his meafures thereon ; all 
which required but ytry few days. 


Agreeably to thefe promifes the detachment 
marched from Rajah Gur on the 8 th, and 
on the 1 2th arrived at Goorgunge, a diftance 
of thirty-leven miles, having left the coun- 
try in perfect peace, and the Boondelchund 
chiefs profeffing amity towards each other, 
and refpedt and friendfliip to the Englifh na- 
tion, whole power in arms they had felt. 
The army was plentifully fupplied with 
every neceflary for its fupport and conve- 

Ballagee's territory begins about Goor- 
gunge, from whence the detachment marched 

R 4 on 


on the 1 4th ; oa the 1 6 th they arrived at 
Coutiiee Nullah, where they halted two 
days. Whilft in this camp, a party of va- 
gabonds, profeffing to be a religious order, 
well known in the eaft by . the name 
of Pandarums, about three hundred in 
number, got into the rear of the Englifh 
army, and drove off two elephants, and 
fome camels ; this was part of a bpdy pf 
two thoufand who were in the neighbour- 
hood. Thofe banditti are the peft of India, 
roving about the country in great bodies, 
fometimes begging, but oftner plundering 
and otherwife diftreffing the poor inhabitants. 
Four companies of grenadiers, and a party of 
cavalry were imnjediately fent after thefe 
pilferers, whom they foon overtook and re- 
covered the plifnd^r, k,iUing about twenty in 
the purfuitt 

Qa the i8th, the troops moved and 
leached Heerapour, a march of about five 
miles only, owing to the difficulties of the 
road, and of a pafs, which the rear guard, 
baggage, and artillery could not get through 
pntii the 19th in the evening. 



OF BOMB AY. 265 

On the 20th, a Vaqueel came from Balla- 
gee with a propofal to Colonel Goddard not 
to take the intended route by Sagur, repre- 
fenting it would be attended with great lofs 
and inconvenience 9 as the inhabitants would 
abandon the city on the approach of the 
troops, that there was another road as good, 
and but little out of the way, adding th© 
ftrongeft affurances that if this requeft was 
complied with, the detachment (hould not 
meet with the lead obftrudion in its march, 
jbut be plpntifully fupplied with provifions. 

Colonel Goddard, fatisfied that his compli- 
jBnce was moft likely to forward the great 
iobjeft of the prcfent fervice, which was dif- 
patch, and being well informed that the road 
propofed was as pradicable, and but fourteen 
miles longer, granted this requeft, without 
abating any thing of his ufual vigilance and 
precaution, being ever on his guard againft 
the deiigns of a man whofe charader was 
made up of fraud and deceit. 

From the time the army left Rajah Gur, to 
the 20th of Odober, the country they had 
1^0 paf^ w^s bi'oken apd mountainovis and the 


^(y(^ A N A C C O U N T 

roads bad. Every thing now began to wear 
a better appearance, the country was opefl, 
fine, and well-cultivated. The ficknefs which 
ever in fome degree accompanies the rainy 
feafbn was vaniflied, and all breathed the 
ipirit of their general* 

On the 2ift the march was refumed, and 
on the 28 th the troops arrived at MalloWn, 
a large town belonging to Ballagee, 5 1 miles 
diftant from Heerapour: here they halted 
iintil the ift of November, on which day 
they reached Kimleflah. This is a large 
fort and ftrong citadel belonging to Ballagee, 
and there it was fuppofed he had depofited 
all his treafures which he had brought from 
Sagur. The fort is lituated on a hill, the 
walls are built of hewn ftone, without any 
cement ; the citadel on the higheft part of 
the hill commands the whole ; the ramparts 
of this are very ftrong, built of ftone, and 
laid in mortar. This is the firft town of 
note in the province of Malava, the bounda- 
ries of which begin fome miles on the eaftern 
fide of it.. 

On the-4th of November the detachment 
arrived at Kourney, diftant from Kimleflah 


» \ 

OF B O M BA Y. 267 

twenty-feven miles. At this village ends the 
territory properly belonging to Ballagee, and 
a fmall diftrlf): begins, called the Bilfah 
Country, belonging to Slndia, but holden 
for him by a Patan chief. 

Hitherto Ballagee feemed to have kept to 
the terms of his laft agreement ; but it was 
in hope of lulling Colonel Goddard into a 
degree of fecurity, which he flattered himfelf 
lie might take advantage ; for on the laft day's 
march, when the arn^iy was nearly out of his 
confines, he fuddenly appeared in their rear 
with a body of 5000 cavalry, and made an 
attack on the baggage, but without the leaft 
cSqQ. ; a ftrong rear guard, with the good 
order and difpofition of the troops, prepared 
againft all furprife, left him nothing but the 
diigrace of the attempt, and of a repulfc 
with the lofs of fome men. This condudt 
was equally perfidious and unmerited, as the 
ftrifteft care had been taken to prevent the 
troops in their paffage from doing any da- 
n\dge to his country, which difcipline was 
produftive of this good efie£l, that none of 
the villages in the line of march were for- 
faken by the inhabitants. 



The chief of the Bilfali diftrift having 
agreed to the paffage of the detachment 
through his country, they marched on the 
9th, and arrived at Burfeah, near which his 
territory ends, on the 15th. 

During this laft march, which was the 
length of fixty miles, Ballagee*s troops, 
whofe numbers were increafed to near 
1 0000, every d^y appeared, and ceafed not 
harraffing our rear. At night they retired to 
fuch a diftance as made a furprife impraftica- 
ble. They failed in every attempt, nor 
were they able even to retard the march. 

On the 1 7th the army marched from 
Burfeah, and entered Bopaul ToUaw, the 
territory of the Nabob Hyat Mahomet Cawn, 
a Patan. This country exhibited the good 
effects of peace, and a wife government ; the 
villages are numerous, and inhabited by peo- 
ple who feem to live in eafe and plenty ; they 
are well clothed, and their houfes in good 

Iflam Gurr, or Iflamabad, which is eigh- 
teen miles from Burfeah, is the firft town of 
note : it is large and populous, and hath a 


. O F B O M B A Y. 269 

fort built of ftone. The nabob is rich, hav- 
ing a jaghire, which produces nine lacks a 
year, and befides rents from the Mahratta 
government, which amount to fourteen lacks 

X)n the 20th the army reached the capital 
of this province which bears its name. It is 
fituated on the fide of a hill, and defcends to 
a lake whofe extent is ten miles ; the walls 
of the town are nine miles in circumference; 
the inhabitants are of a fairer complexion 
than is ufual in India ; their houfes are built 
of ftone and moftly good ; every thing fpeaks 
happinefs and gentle adminiftration. Provi- 
fions are abundant ; they were much cheaper 
than they had been found in any part of 
the march. The force of this chief amounts 
to 7000 men ; he hath a confiderable lartil- 
lery, and a great number of firelocks. The 
fort is commanded by a hill to the eaftward, 
which is a hard rock ; the upper part of the 
fort is alfo on a rock, without a ditch ; the 
rampart of hewn ftone laid in mortar. 

It was found neceffary to halt there a few 
days to coUeft provifions^ and make other ne- 
oefl&ry preparations for the march to Hufl- 



nahbad Gaut, on the banks of the Nerbuddah. 
The conduft of the nabob was in every re- 
fpeft perfeftly agreeable to his friendly decla- 
rations : Ballagee, in revenge for a behaviour 
fo contrary to his viev^rs, had entered his do- 
minions and plundered fome of his villages; 
but further outrages were ftopped by a Spirited 
meflage from the nabob, declaring if he did 
not give over the purfuit and inftantly quit 
the country, he would march againft him 
with all his force. 

On the 27th, the detachment refumed its 
march : the firft two days proved tolerably 
good, and the country fertile and varied ; but 
the third and fourth, on which they reached 
the Nerlnaddah, prefented a variety of difficul- 
ties, from the number of narrow pafles and 
broken roads, which wece fueh as nothing 
but inceflant labour could have conquered. 
The whole diftance was forty-fix miles.* 
Colonel Goddard gives the higheft praife to 
the fpirited exertions of his men during this 
whole march^ and the chearfulnefs vwth 
which they went through their uncommon 



On the 30th they reached Huflhahbad 
Gaut ; the Nerbuddah at this place is not 
broader than the Jumna at Culpee ; the 
banks not fo high ; the ftream is gentle and 
clear ; a fandy bottoms intermixed with 
rocks ; the hills are very high on the north 
iide, axid within a mile and a half of the ri- 
ver. On the fouth they appear about fix 
miles diftant ; the ground between on both 
fides a thick underwood ; the river runs 
E. and N. E. The diftance from Rajah 
Gur to the banks of the Nerbuddah at HuiT- 
nahbad is two hundred and eighty-^ight 
miles. Fourteen miles to the ibuthward 
of the Nerbuddah is the province of Berar. 

We Ihajil now return to the operations of 
the Supreme Council* From the previojua 
knowledge which the governor general had 
of Colonel Goddard's abilities and difcretion^ 
^d as it appea,i:ed frooa his letters that he 
fliould b^ in a fhort time in Berar, h^ on the 
1 6th of November 1778, propofed in coun- 
cil that the perion in whofe pofieffion re* 
mained the papers of Mr. Elliot, which he 
bad cau&d to be fealed up on the beginning 
Qf his illn^fs/ ihould deliver them to Colonel 
Q<?ddard> and that he (hould be diredted to 



2^4 A N A "C C U N 1* 

carry into cxectition the inftru^ons giVeh td 
Mr, Elliot, and negotiate and conclude ia 
treaty with the Rajah of Befar, as if they had 
been originally given to him* This, after 
fbme oppofifion, was relblved, and letters ift 
cdnfequence were written, and ait the fame 
time the inftruflions conttnunicated to the 
council of Bombay. Mr. Farquhar who 
gave the account of Mf. Elliot's death did 
not long furvive his friend ; the cdre of the 
papers devolved on Mr. Anderlbn, who by 
Moodagee's defire was gone to him at N^g-^ 
poor : during his journey a fevere illnefs had 
feized this prince, he had been'fome days de^* 
lirious, and his life, fo far defpaired of^ that 
he had, according to the cuftom of the Gen- 
toos, been taken froiii his coft and ftifetched 
on the ground, there to expire : when MrV 
Anderfon arrived, a favorable crifis had re* 
lieved him, but fuch was the weaknefs which 
his diforder left, that his health returned 
very flowly : whilft he was recovering, he 
anlwered the letters he had received from 
Colonel Goddard, announcing the death of 
Colonel Leflie, and the preparations making 
for a fpeedy march to Berar ; a copy of his 
letter, dated the 23d of November, which 
was delivered to Mr. Anderfon, that he 


iO ^ BOMBAY. ±ys 

ihight fend it to the governor general^ was on 
the 2 1 ft of December read in confultation* 
It began with informing Colonel Goddard 
that Lalloo Jaddoo Roy^ who had been lent 
to the Neirbuddah to receive Colonel Leflie^ 
and after waiting five months in vain expec- 
tation of his arrivdl, had been obliged by fick* 
nefs to return to NagpOof, (hould ndw ad- 
Vance two or three <lays journey to meet him 
and inform him of the fituation of die armies 
of the Decan, and all other matters* That 
tfie death of Mr; Elliot had fufpentied all 
tiegotiations and fchemes lihtil the arrival of* 
letters from Calcutta, or of a perfon of confi- 
dence to fupply his place ; that as the greateft 
friendfhip fubfifted between him and the go- 
vernor general^ he t^ould have no objedllon to 
the army's cf offing the Nerbuddah and enter-^ 
ing his dominions, where every accommoda- 
tion fhould be provided ; that the warmth of 
firiendftiip not allowing diffimulation or re- 
ferve^ it was incumbent on him to commu- 
nicate what he had learned, and his fenti* 
ments on every matter; that the delay of 
five months which Colonel Leflie had era- 
ployed in fettling the affairs of the Boondel- 
chund country was impolitic and prejudicial 
to the defign of the expedition j that it fvir- 

S niihed 



niflicd Ballagee an occafion of accufing him 
at Poonah, of creating difturbances, and 
meditating the redudiou of that province, 
thencp to proceed in a hoftile manner 
againft the Paifhwah ; whereby the chiefs 
alarmed raifed troops, and Ballagee received 
orders from Poonah, and Sindia and Hol- 
car had like wife affembled armies ; that 
the Nizam being in ftrift league with the 
Paifliwah, had ftationed troops in different 
pafl'es and gauts. That he had defigned oxi 
the arrival of Mr, Elliot to have with him 
formed a plan to enfure a free and unmo- 
lefled paffage to Bombay ; one part whereof 
was, that both Mr. Elliot and he fliould, in 
letters to Poonah, aflbre that government , 
that the detachment was not intended to be 
hoftile to them, or to meddle in reinftating. 
Ragobah ; that it was meant folely to prote<3; 
the Englifli fettlements againft. the French, 
between whom and Britain war was declared : 
he then mentioned the fubftance of the go- 
vernor general's letters to him fince the death 
of Mr. Elliot, " whereby he was requefted 
to inform him of fuch points as he wilhed 
for the purpofe of eftablifliing a firm union 
and folid friendfliip between them, on the 
ground of reciprocal and equal benefit ; 

*^ that 


OF B O M B A Y* 275 

that the prefent time furnifted an opportu- 
nity for this, that the detachment would 
** foon enter his dominions, that it ,v/as ad- 
vifable to ftrengthen it with a body of his 
forces ; he waited impatiently to be made 
acquainted with his opinion, on which to 
*' form his ultimate refolutions/* On this 
letter he remarked, that to form fuch a plan, 
and eftabliffi fuch an union, required time, 
and a long communication by letters ; that 
the immediate junction of a body of his 
troops could produce no good eSedt, but 
might excite jealoufies in the Paifhwah and 
the Nizam, and expofe his dominions to ra- 
vage; he therefore (hould wait for a reply 
from Calcutta with the opinion of the gover- 
nor general, and he defired the Colonel to ad- 
vife him of whatever plan he fhould adopt 
for an unreferved communication between 
them, " as fuch between friends is highly 
commendable and approved by God/' 


In a poftlcript he mentions the danger 
there may be from the troops of Sindia and 
their defultory manner of fighting, and re- 
commends remaining on the banks of the 
Nerbuddah till he (hould receive letters from 
Calcutta, and to write to the Paifhwah, de- 

S 2 daring 

276 A N A C C O U N T 

Glaring peaceable intentions, and that he will 
not in any manner aflxft Ragobah. This, ias 
well as the letter, breaths the ftrongeft friend- 
fhip for the governor general. The words 
are remarkable, '^ I am induced by friendfhip 
** to give you this intelligence, for my heatt 
*< is pained at the apprehenfion of your ex- 
** periencing any misfortune, and to return 
would leflen the terror of your arms, and 
give difplcafure to Mr. Haftings. 


Upon this letter^ two queftions arofe, 
1 ft, Whether it did not appear that Moodagoe 
was difinclined to join Colonel Goddard, or 
co-operate in any enterprizc againft the Poo- 
nah government. 2d, Whether it did not ap- 
pear to be the opinion of Moodagee that Co- 
lonel Goddard, proceeding on his march, 
would expofe the detachment to the greateft 
difficulties and dangers. 

But thefe queftions were looked on as pre- 
itaature : for the letters written by Moodagee, 
upon his hearing of Mr. Elliot's death and 
-received on the 1 2Ch of November, containiod 
the moft prefling inftances that the intended 
negociation (hould proceed, and might be 
committed to the charge of Mr. Farquhar; 


O F B a M, B A y. 277 

oa the 1 6th it had been refplved to charge 
Colonel Goddard with this negoclatlon, and 
on the 2 3d, notice was.given of it to Moodagee ; 
now from that prince's writing the letter re- 
ceived on the 1 2th' of November upon his 
firfli notice o^ Mr. Elliot's death,, to his no- 
tice of Colonel Goddard's being fubftituted 
to him, (during which interval alfo happened 
his ficknefs): he muft. have been ia utter un- 
certainty; it was therefore proper to await 
the letters he ihould fend after his having 
learned that change. In confequence, the. 
queftions recqived a. negative. 

That no precaution tending to enfure the 
fuccefs of the detachment (hould be omitted, 
ag from the delay before Colonel Leflie's 
death there might have been fome dimi-^ 
nution of their numbers ; two battalions 
of fepoys under the command of Major 
Carnac, an experienced officer, who had a 
thorough knowledge of that country, were 
fent to the weftern frontier, there to 
w_ait the direftions of Colonel Goddard, 
either for a junftion with his detachment, 
for the protedion of Nagpoor, or for pre- 
ferving the communication with Bengal, as 

S 3 ihould 


Ihould be by him judged moft conducive 
to the end of the expedition. They let out 
the 4th of January 1779. 

In the mean time Colonel Goddard was 
proceeding ; on the i ft of December, the firft 
and fourth battalion of fepoys croffed the Ner- 
buddah in boats. On the next day, the 
paffage of the whole army, was effedled, a 
place having been found where the river was 
fordable. As it was probable the troops 
might remain fome time in their encamp- 
ment, great care was taken to chule an 
healthy lituation* 

Immediately after croffingthe Nerbuddah, 
Colonel Goddard was met by the confidential 
perfbn whom the Rajah of Berar had pro- 
mifed to fend to him ; his converfation, 
though declarative of the moft friendly difpo^ 
fition, turned fingly on the means of recon- 
ciling the Poonah Durbar to the march of 
the detachment : as no mention was made of 
any further views, fome other mode of com- 
munication was neceflary ; the diftance from 
the camp to Nagpore being two hundred miles, 
was too great for the Colonel to go inperlbn, 
unlefs he were affured that the intentions of 



theRajah were perfeftly favorable, in thefevcral 
points on which he was empowered to treat ; 
he therefore, that no time fhould be loft, fent 
Lieutenant Weatherftone, fully inftru£ted in 
every point relative to thofe matters : he an- 
fwered the truft repofed in him, acquitting 
himlelf of his commiffion with great ability. 
He found that a fpirit of caution and circum- 
fpedlion diredled the councils of Moodagee, 
and that he wifhed all further proceedings 
(hould be fufpended until a full fettlement 
between him and the Supreme Council was 
completed ; that the difputes in which the 
Poonah Durbar was involved with Bombay, 
and the part taken by thefe in favour of Ra- 
' gobah, was an obftacle to the commencement 
of any aftive operations: at the fame time 
there jvas no doubt but his inclinations to 
theEnglifli were really friendly, and that po- 
litical motives, as well from his future views 
as from the vicinity and fituation of his do- 
minions, in regard to the Englifh pofleffions, 
muft determine him to keep that line, Thefe 
confiderations convinced Colonel Goddai'd 
that there was not any profpeft of an imme^- 
diate conclufion of fuch an alliance as was 
aimed at in the inftruflions given to Mr. 

S 4 Elliot ; 


Elliot ; he therefore determined his pourff 
qf aftlon by the events of the tiipes, 

He had, agreeably to the prdeys of th? Su-r 
preme Council, regularly fent information to 
Bombay of the progrefs of his marph, but had 
not for fome time paft received any letters from 
them, yet from Moodagee and other quarters 
intelligence came tp him of their intentions 
to reinftate Ragobah, ^nd of their prepara-^ 
tions for efFeding that undertaking : certain 
of thefe fads, he maturely confidered the 
fubftaqce and fpirit of the inftrqdions from 
the Supreme Counpil a3 well tq him as the 
late Mr. Elliot, whence he concluded that 
marching to Poonah was what was fitteft to 
be done on the circumftanc^s in which he 
ftood ; he at that nioment received letters 
from the prefidency qf Bombay, confirnvng 
all thefe advices, and particularly informing 
him of their treaty with Ragobaji, and that 
their army had tal^en the field and begun 
their march to Popnah, towards which place 
they required Kim to proceed with all ei(;pe- 
dition ; this confirmed not only the propriety 
but the neceffity of the meafure ; what- 
ever might be the refult of the, refolves of 
the Supreme Councilj^ the arriyal of this 



force near Poonab muft be for the intereft of 
the fervice, either ta profecutc the wau, 
which he looked on as aftually begun by afts 
of hoftility he had authentic intelligence of, 
or bring it ta an honourable conclufion, and 
at the fame time he ihould be ready to zQt 
In concert with Moodagee in any plan deter^ 
mined between him and the Supreme CounciL 
He therefore formed the refolutioo of march* 
ing direftly ; when this was imparted to 
Moodagee, he repeatedly expreffed his wifh 
that the Colonel (hould remain in his domi- 
nions till orders were received from Calcutta, 
but nothing could induce him to change a 
meafure which he was convinced was eflen- 
tial. He foon fatisfied Moodagee that a further 
delay would prove prejudicial. The whole 
ccoidudl of this prince befpoke perfect confi- 
dence and friendly intentions. The ^Colonel 
finding a difficulty in negotiating his bills on 
Calcutta, he advanced money upon them, 
without receiving any thing on the fcore of 
difcount, and in every other refpeft affifted 
hin?, promifing to furnifh provifions as they 
advanced, for which purpofe, a principal per- 
fon belonging to him fhould remain upon 
the confines of his country, and forward the 
fypplies of grain. All was now in readinefs, 



and on the i6th of January 1779, the 
troops left their camp on the banks of the 

In their march on the 2 1 ft, they paflcd 
through a confiderable town called Hurdah,. 
belonging to the Paifliwa, and here they got 
into the great road leading to Brampore and 
Poonah, the way which Colonel Upton had 
gone when fent upon his embafly to that 

The next day the army reached Charwah, 
and halted on account of the extreme illneis 
of Lieutenant Colonel Fortman, the field en- 
gineer, who died the day after, univerfally 
regretted. The diftance from the camp oa 
the banks of the Nerbuddah to Charwah is 
eighty miles, a country remarkably rich and 
fertile, * and producing a large quantity of 
wheat. During this march, Colonel God- 
dard had received intelligence that the army 
from Bombay was encamped at Boragaut? 
fifty miles from Poonah, waiting there for 
ftores, and that a confiderable force had taken 
the- field to oppofe them, and was ftationed 
between them and that place ; and on the 
24th he received advices direftly from the 


O F B O M B A Y. 283 

gentlemen whom the fele6: committee of 
Bombay had appointed to conduft Ragobah 
to Poonah, and fettle the affairs of that go- 
vernment, giving notice of that appoint- 
ment; this letter was dated the nth of Ja- 
nuary, and figned by Mr* Carnac ; it men- 
tioned, that ** within two days the face of 
•* their affairs was fo changed with relpeft 
*' to the primary caiife, which led to diredl- 
'' ing his march towards Zineer, a fort be- 
longing to Morabah, that they^ muft 
give him advice, if he was joined by a 
body of Moodagee's forces, fufficient to 
enable him to advance, notwithftanding 
attacks of cavalry . which would hover 
round him from all quarters to feize his 
*^ baggage and provifions, anxi if he had 
provifions fufficient to laft him until he 
reached Broach or Surat, to proceed to fuch 
of thole places as he could moft fpeedily 
arrive at; but if he ^:ould not proceed in 
'^ the face of fuch an enemy, without immi- 
*^ nent hazard of diftrefs, then to remain 
*^ on the borders of Berar, or where he 
** could befl fecure provifions till further 
*^ direflions from the feleft committee of 
** Bombay/* 






This letter left hita In doubt whether the 
writers had a profped of accompliihiiag thdr 
Dajdertaking without his dffiQcanccy or ha4 impra6:icabl6; thefeai;expreiie4 
of the Mahf atta horie led him to conclude th^ 
latter, ^iid the beginning of their letter the 
former. This ftate of uncertainty was in- 
crealed,. by his receiving on the next day a 
letter from the feleft committee at Borabay, 
dated the 1 2th, wherein they haftened his 
march in ^e road £rft pointed out. It was 
plain the feled committee were ignpr^ciit of 
the circumftance alluded to in the ktter of 
the 1 1 th. In this perplexity he determined 
to proceed to Brampopr, where more particu« 
lar knowkdge of the fituation of affairs 
ihould determine the manner of his farther 

In confequence, the army continued* its 
m^tfCh from Char^ah on the 2 5 th of January ; 
they proceeded, without interruption, and on- 
the 30th reached the banks of the Tapti- 
riyer,, oppofite Brampoor, a diftance of feven- 
ty-tbree npiles. Colonel Goddard did not 
find the regular information he expefted, but 
met flying reports of the defeat of the Bom- 
bay army* 


O F B O MB A Y. 185 

On the 2d of February the following lem 
ter, figned by Mr. Carnac and Colonel Eger- 
fton, dated the 19 th of January, from Cam- 
^poly, was delivered to him : 

** Sir, We have addrefled you on the 
** 1 6th a letter containing .orders which up^ 
** on recollection we do not think ourlelves 
^* authorized to give you, you are therefore 
** to pay ho regard whatever thereu&to, 

** We are, fee.'* 

Not having received the letter of the 1 6th, 
atud the reports he had met foreboding its 
contents, joined to the (hortnefs of this, 
threw him into great perplexity ; he thought 
at firft of halting, to procure further and 
more certain intelligence, but not having re* 
'ceived it on the 5 th, after maturely confideiv 
ing his critical fituation, being in the heart of 
-the Mahratta empire, furrounded by enemies, 
whofe fuccefs might leave them at liberty to 
aft with their whole force agaitift his detach- 
ment, the feafon approaching in whix^h it 
would be hazardous to keep the field in an 
inimical comatry, he determined to march 
towards Surat with all poffible expedition* 
He was confi^rmed in this by letters from 


lis A N A C C O U N T 

Moodagee, the contents whereof led him to 
conclude that the Bombay government had 
received fome confiderable checque, the bad 
confequences of which might be prevented by 
the prefence of the detachment, cfpecially 
fhbuld an attack meditated by the French, be 
caH-ied into execution. The doubt whether 
the late misfortune might not operate a change 
in the favourable diljpofitions of Moodagee^ 
was another circumftance impelling him to 
proceed forward, rather than run the hazard 
of fuch a change in returning through Berar; 
too much time would have been confumed in 
waiting to. learn his determination, and by 
that the opportunity of fervice be loft. The 
propriety of this refolution was evinced by a 
letter afterward received from Moodagee, 
wherein he leemed greatly apprehenfive of 
the confequences of this blow, and advifed 
that the detachment fhould not proceed. 
In the correlpondence between Colonel God- 
dard and the Supreme Council, the reafons 
which determined him to this meafure appear 
at large, and do no lefs honour to his judg- 
ment and penetration, than the celerity of his 
march does credit to his abilities as an officer, 
and tp the uncommon exertion and fpirit of 
the troops under his command. 


O F B O M B A Y, 2%f 

The city of Brampore is equal in fize to 
Patna, and is the capital of the rich province 
of Candifli, under the dominion of the Poo- 
nah miniftry ; it is furrounded by a ftone 
wall in bad repair. The troops during their 
ftay in this city were treated by the inhabi- 
tants with the greateft kindnefs and hofpita- 
lity, and plentifully fupplied with provifions, 
which were regularly paid for ; the grapes 
were remarkably fine, and came from a place 
called Afliere Gurr, diftant about fourteen 


miles N. N. E. of Brampore. Mr. Dow in 
his third volume calls it Hafler, or Hazlre. 
It is defcribed as an impregnable fortrefs, fitu- 
ated on the top of a very high l^ill, appearing 
fomewhat like the Table Land at the Cape of 
Good Hope ; the fort on the fummit feems 
not lefs than an Englifti mile in diameter ; 
it is of a triangular form, the walls of ftone, 
laid in mortar, with round towers, and cava- 
liers at proper diftances. Within the fort 
there is faid to be a large lake, and a canal 
from it which runs the length of the fort ; 
it is alfb reported that this ground produceth 
grain enough for . the fubfiftence of the gar- 
rifbn, which confifts of about 1500 men. 
In confequence of the ftrength of this fitua- 
tion, the Killadar fupports his independence, 



and bids defiance to all his neighbours ; thtf 
country all around is compofed of hills of 
conckar, and fuch broken irregular ground^ 
that there is no accefs to the place, but 
through a deep hollow way, fb narrow thaC 
a loaded bullock can fcarce pafs* The mouti^ 
tain itfelf is of a rocky ftone and conckar^ 
and the height luch as to be ieen dlftinCHy 
at twenty-five miles difbnce* 

The army marched on the 6th, and oil 
the 9 th a Vaqueel belonging to the Pailhwah 
Madharow Narrain, delivered the letter figned 
by MeffrsXarnacandEgerton, dated the 1 6 th 
of January, from the camp at TuUingaumi 
and written in confequence of the late unfor* 
tunate convention > direfting his return to 
Bengal, accompanied by one from the Paifli* 
wah,correfpondingwiththofe direftions* The 
letter of the 19th releafed him from every 
obligation to attend to thefe. From this 
circumftance, and the further intelligence re- 
ceived at the fame time ^ Colonel Goddard had 
the fuUeft proof of the expediency and pro-* 
priety of the refolution he had taken ; he 
therefore anfwered the Durbar, that in obe* 
dience to the orders of the Supreme Council 
he was marching to prote£t Bombay^ that his 



intentions were friendly to the Mahratta ftate, 
ind he fhould continue to preferve the fame re* 
gard to the friendftxip between the Supreme 
Council and the Poonah adminiftration, pro- 
tecting the fubje£ls of the Paifhwa from vio- 
lence, and avoiding all hoftility, unlefs com- 
pelled to it by their oppofition. That he was 
now advanced to the neighbourhood of Bom- 
bay, which according to the orders of the Su- 
preme Council he muft reach, after which he 
mlift be guided by its directions. He was then 
arrived on the banks of the gut Nuddy, near 
eighty miles from Brampoor, which he had 
marched in four days : the road was good, 
the Country line and fertile, full of villages 
and inhabitants: the diftance between the 
laft mentioned place to Surat, about two 
hundred miles, which he made no doubt of 
reaching before the end of the month ; nor 
was he miftaken, the march was continued 
with fuch unremitting celebrity and fpirit, 
that the army arrived at Surat on the 25 th 
of February, having marched, from the 6th, 
near three hundred miles, including two or 
three days halt. 

This march was performed with the more 
cafe Jfrom the good effeds produced by the' 

T mo- 


moderation suid ftrid dilcipUne with which 
this detachment was cond^ded, which pro- 
cured them, not only acquiefcence, but every 
affiftance which the inhabitants of the many 
villages they paffed through could give them. 
None of thefe forfook their houfes, but vo^ 
luntarily offered their provifions and grain* 
An enumeration of thefe villages would yield 
neither fatisfa£tion or ufeful. information, and 
their names are all detailed in a journal lately 
publiftied. The country is fertile, populoy?., 
and well cultivated, the inhabitants feem in- 
duftrious, happy, and humane. Their gcod re- 
ception of the army was the more ufeful at 
this time as the rapidity of the march was fuch, 
that many of the carts, upon which the grain 
which had been provided at Brampoor was to 
be carried, were unable to keep up \Vith the 
army, and had not the country fupplied pro- 
vifions, the progrefs muft have been retarded 
from the neceffity of adapting the motion of 
the army to that of this part of the baggag^e* 

The firfl: notice received at Bengal of the 
unfortunate iflbe of the enterprize of th© 
Bombay council was from Fort St. George. 
The prefldent fent copies of letters which the 
Nabob Mahomet Aly C^wia had received 


OF BO MB AY. 291 

From Poonah, From ithefe and feveral other 
{)aprcrs received the fame day, the whole ap- 
peared in the worft light : for, in fome of 
ithem, it is was added, that Ragobah had ac* 
tually joined the Mahratta army with five or 
fix thoufand horfe; and was united with them 
ito fight againft the Englifh. 

In this doubt and Uncertainty the firft care 
of the Supreme Council, after a mature de- 
liberation, was to provide againft all accidents 
that iriight happen from any fudden irrup-- 
tion iiito their territory or that of Owde : 
General Stibbert, then at the head of th9 
^rniy in Bengal, was for that purpole or- 
<delfed to iForm two camps of the troops under 
his command, and hold them in readinefs to 
inarch at the firft notice ; at the fame time 
the governor general advifed the Nabob of 
Owde that thefe extraordinary camps were 
hot formed to aft againft any of the powers in 
the neighbburhood of his doqainions. A fub* 
Sequent order was fent the general to march 
the firft brigade toward the banks of the 
j^umna, there to encamp in fuch a fituatiou 
^s was moft convenient for defending the 
Doab againft an invafion* 

T a This 


^f)^ A N A C C O U N T 

This was all that could be done until 
more authentic accounts came from Bombay. 
No very fudden irruption was yet to be 
feared from the Mahrattas, and though the 
defeat of the Bombay army might encourage 
the neighbouring powers to form alliances 
with the Poonah Durbar agalnft the Englifh, 
they could not be brought into a£tion before 
the Supreme Council fliould have received 
fuch accounts as would have enabled them 
to take certain and proper arrangements, they 
therefore fufpended their proceedings on that 
fubjedt. The council of Madras apprifed them 
of their purfuing the fiege of Mahe, the fuc- 
cefs whereof could not be doubted ; this was 
a falutary meafure, not only as it totally, re- 
moved the French from Jndoftan , but pre- 
vented the eiFed of difagreeable impreffions, 
which the late defeat might have made, efpe- 
cially if diffidence or timidity appeared to 
follow it. 

Much about the fame time they received 
letters from Colonel Goddard, by which he 
informed them of the leveral particulars juft 
now related, and the diredting of his march 
towards Poonah in conicquence : one part of 
his letters was comfortable. They all con- 
tained repetitions of his firm belief of the 



friendly fentiments of the Rajah of Berar to- 
wards the government of Bengal, and of his 
performing his promifes of affiftance in every 
point but that of taking an aftive part w^ith 
the Englifh arms. As the Colonel had re- 
ceived no particulars, he could be explicit 
in nothing but his declaration of proceeding 
at firft to Poonah and afterwards to Surat. 

At laft, on the i8th March 1779, letters 
came from the feleft committee of Bombay, 
dated the 3d of February, containing a fum- 
mary account of the whole proceedings, 
wherein they faid, as they could not admit 
an agreement made in fuch cirqumftances, 
and after fo explicit a declaration of the com- 
mittee's want of power to be of any validity, 
they fhould endeavour to treat with the Mah- 
rattas upon another footing* 

The Supreme Council had fbme debate 
concerning what fliould be written both to 
the feledl committee and Colonel Goddard ; 
at length it was refolved to approve his 
marching to Surat with all expedition, 
and as by the refblution of the Bombay 
council againft the convention, or com- 
plying with its terms, it was probable 

T 3 they 


they might be engaged in hpftllities witl^ 
the Mahrattas, but all was yet dark', he 
was to zd; according to his difcretion ia 
purfuanc;e to their former orders, with this 
explanation, that as the defign of* his march 
was to proted Bombay, that; muft be his 
objeft; but was to proceed, fo as not to 
involve himfelf or the Supreme Council 
in the refponfibility of their ads, remembring 
that he a£ted under the fole authority of the' 
Supreme GounciJ, and of courie was to ejx- 
ercife his own judgment both in the accept*- 
ance and e3c^cution of any fervice which they 
fliould require him to perform* 

The board now, on the i ft of Apfil, or- 
dered Major Camac to return to Corumbah 
in Chutta Nagpore: |ie had advanced into 
Berar, where he met with a friendly recep- 
tion, Colonel Goddard having proceeded fo 
far on his way to Surat, it became unneceA 
fary for Major Camac*s detachment to pro- 
ceed further, ^ "^ ' . . 

An incident pow happened, which though 
it hath iiot a ncceflary connexion with the 
fei^s here related, yet from the fortunes and 
high rank of tRe aftor, deferve a place in 
hiftory, * 


i. i 



In the beginhing of February the grandlba 
of the famous Nizam-al-Mullock, Ghazi-ul- 
Dien, who, in Dow*s hiftory, appears to have 
put two emperors to death, Ahmed Shaw, and 
AUum Geer Sani, the former the fbn of the 
iinfortunat^ Mahummed, who had the morti- 
fication of receiving laws in his capital from 
Thamas Kouli Khan the Perfian emperor, andi 
the latter the great grandfon of Aurungzebe, 
and father of the prefent Mogul, came to Su-. 
rat. His nefarious adlions are related in that 
hiftory to the year 1 7 6 1 , when every thing 
was in confufion, and Dehli in the hands of 
AbduUa and his Durannies, was a fcene of 
blood, devaftation, and horror. Dow fums 
up his charafter in thefe words : ** Thus 
** ended the public tranfa£kions of Ghazi-ul- 
** Dien, who crowded into a few years of 
** early youth more crimes and abilities thaa 
** other confummate villains have done in.* 
*^ long life of wickednefs and treachery. 
•* Though he did not poflefs the Decan, 
** the fruit of his grandfather's uncommon 
** crimes, he may truly may be faid to have 
been the genuine heir of the parts and 
treafon of that monfter of iniquity and vil- 
lainy.'* This man, after wandring in dif* 
guife through many countries, was brpugh^ 

T 4 to 


to the neighbourhood of Surat, where he 
dwelt in one of the Borah's mofques, in or- 
der, as it was given out, to proceed to 
Hodge : he was in the habit and perfbnated 
the charader of a Faquier : the Nabob of 
Surat fent and fecured his perfbn. He ac- 
knowledged himfelf to be the identical Ghazi 
de Khan * ; he had with him a wife and 
two children, one fixteen years, and the 
other nine years old, and about eight or ten 
attendants ; the Nabob fent him to one of 
his own gardens, called Mahomet a Bang, 
within the town walls. After his flight 
from Dehli in the year 1 7 6 1 , he had retired 
among the Jautes ; and wandring from one 
place to another to feek fecurity^ he had 
come to Eugene the capital of Sindia's domi*« 
nions. Here, under the habit of a Borah Fa- 
quier, he refided a confiderable time, and 
was by the Grand Mullah fent to Surat, 
thence to go to Hodge, where he was dif- 
covered by fome of thofe who had ferved un- 
der him at Delhi* Obnoxious to the Mogul 
for the murder of his; father, and feared as a 
dangerous rival by the Subah of the Decan : 
Great fums had been offered for the poflef- 
(ion of his perfon : the Nabob was uneafy, 


* The addition of de Khan, or uI-Dica is iodifTerently 
£iyea to him. 


left when his rclidence at Surat fliould be 
publicly known, his perfon fliould be de- 
manded by each of thefe princes: at the 
fame time it was thought by him and the 
Bombay council, that the poffeffion of a per- 
fon fo conneded with the greateft families 
and Omrahs in India, might be of fervice to 
the Supreme Council. The Bombay felefl: 
committee gave notice of this in their letter 
of the 2 1 ft of February, and of their deter- 
mination to remove him to Bombay, which 
was his defign ; and they afked the orders of 
the Supreme Council concerning him. The 
anfwer to this expreffed a wifh that he had 
not been apprehended, advifed that all ap- 
pearance of violence fliould be avoided, and 
therefore recommended to them inftantly to 
grant him his liberty, peremptorily infifting 
that he quit the Englifli territories, and to for- 
ward him on his way to Mecca if an opportu- 
nity fliould offer. He foon after fet out for 
that place, with his family and train. 

On the 5th of April 1779 the num- 
ber of the board of the Supreme Council 
being complete by the acceffion of Sir Eyre 
Coote, they took into confideration meafures 
proper to be purfued in the circumftances 
which the late tranfa^ions had placed the 



affairs df the Company in. They appeared to 
be, that conceflions were made by perlbns 
haying no authority to make them ; one of 
thefe was the furrender of the Company *s 
poljeffions dependent on Bombay, and the 
other the return of the detachment ; that the 
Bombay council were determined not to per- 
form the firft ; the arrival at Surat had put 
an end to the fecond : that it was likelv, as 
the perfpn of Ragobah was now in the pof- 
ieffion qf the Mahratta chiefs, they would 
not infift on the rigorous performance of the 
conditiops, fo that a peace might be efta- 
blifhed ; but if they Hiould infift on them 
gftual ^ar muft then exift, and Colonel 
Goddard muft have been called in for the 
defence of thofe lettlements : that in cafe the 
Mahrattas had taken no inftaiit meafures for 
inforcing the performa^nce of tbefe conditions, 
it might be fuppofec\ they had exafted them 
either to have a fp^cious fubjeft for prefent 
negotiation, or a prete^^t for renewing the 
war when they ihould he in a, qondition ta 
profecute it with furer effeft; and with this 
intent niight have invited (he French to 
avail themfelves, together wijh them of the 
prefent advantage by bringing an, armament 

from Mciuritius^ ^vh^^[^ ^h^Y b?^ force 


Q f BOMBAY. 299 

jnore than fufficient for fiich a deiign, the 
only chance left them of regaining their in-^ 
Puence in India ; that fhould this have beeq. 
done (as fuch a mefTage^ if difpatched in Ja-*^ 
nuary wovld have arrived there in March) ; 
if it found every thing in readinefs the force 
fent from thence might arrive at the deftine^ 
ipot by the month of September. 

On the other hand, probably the divifions 
of the Mahratta ftate ^ere only fufpended by 
thQ late danger, which, united thoie parties 
in one cornmon caufe ; the prelence of Ra-? 
gobah among them was likely to revive their 
diffentions ; Sindia, who ever a£ted 01^ a le- 
parate intereft, might apply the fanftion of 
his name to encreafe and confirm his own 
power. As to the Rajah of Berar, his con- 
du£l fince the knowledge of that event (hewed 
he confider^d the defeat as natural, and a 
proof that Enghfli arms could not withftand 
the fuperiority of numbers, and the rapid 
movements of the Mahrarta cavalry ; that his 
appreheniion of their power was the ^ring, 
of his advice to Colonel Goddard not to pro- 
ceed, and the influence of that impreffion 
Jiad probably made him give up the thought 
of the alliance he once courted. It was not 

. - ^. therefore 

v./- . ,- : .-.;._.. ' f 

'■^ f . 


3oa A N A C C O U N T 

therefore advifeable for the Supreme Council 
to renew any overtures toward it, but if ever 
circumftances, either through fear of the 
Mahratta power, or of any other danger iai- 
pending on the province of Berar, fliould 
prompt him to fblicit the fupport of the 
Englifh, it would be proper to grant it : the 
lofs fuftained was of credit and reputation 
only, therefore every fte^ tending to betray 
a confcioufnefs of weaknefs or want of refb- 
lution, was carefully to be avoided : at all 
events, whilft they fought peace they ought 
to be prepared for war* 

On thefe confiderations it was* refolved, 
I. To invert Colonel Goddard with full 
power, as minifter of the Supreme Council, 
to treat with the Mahratta ftate for the re- 
newal or confirmation of the treaty of Po- 
rounder, provided they receded from their 
pretenfions under the convention of Wor- 
gaum, and engaged never to admit French 
forces into their dominions, or permit them 
to have any eftablilhment on the Mahratta 
coaft ; and thele conditions were to be the 
alternative of peace or war. That letters in 
confequence, and conformable to what (hould 
be fo written to Colonel Goddard^ (hould be 



ient to the Paifliwa and his minifters, and 
alfb to the Rajah of Berar : that other letters 
fhould be written to the prefidency of Bom- 
bay, advifing them of Colonel Goddard's in- 
ftruftions, defiring them to be prepared, but 
to undertake nothing ofFcnfively without po- 
fitive orders from the Supreme Council : and 
to the prefidency of Fort St. George to in- 
form them of this defign ; and in the event 
of their fuccefs againft Mahe, to order their 
troops then employed in that expedition to 
remain there or at Tillichery, and be pre- 
pared to ^ move on the receipt of any orders 
for a junflion with the Englifti forces on 
that fide of India. Thefe difpofitions were 
preparations to any plan which it might be 
neceflary to concert with other prefidencieiR 
in the event of a war with the Mahrattas 
fingly, or joined with the French, or any at-? 
tempt pf thefe laft fingly upon Bombay* 

The fif ft care of Colonel Goddard, upon 
his arrival near Surat, was to choofe a conve- 
nient and healthy Ipot of ground whereon to 
encamp; fuch a one he found upon the 
banks of the river Tapti, two miles above the 
city. Almoft upon his arrival he received 
letters fro»^ tiie fele<ft committee at Bombay, 


* I t ' - ♦t 

so* A N A C C O U N T 

irequefting hii J)refeHce there. In ardct 
^e might lofe ho time ih layitig before tht 
Supreme Council the ftate of affairs at that 
fettlement, he fet out jfor that ifland as ibori 
as he had regulated every thing relating to 
the bills to be drawn on Bengal for his fub- 
fiftence. In this he found difficulties j the 
merchants, taking advantage of his wants; 
raifed the exchange to a monftrt^us height; to 
which he waS obliged for fome time to fob* 
miti The council of Bengal; bh their know* 
ledge of this, thought it rieceflkry to lend 
ipeeiie from thence, which tfras attended with 
a misfortune^ five lacks of roupies fent hf 
the Stafford were lofl by the tvrcck 6f thdt 

Ovsdilg to the length of the paflage €dld- 
hcl Goddard did not arrive at Bombay till 
the 1 5 th of ^ferch. The firfl thing he did 
Was to make them a report tif his force, and 
as they informed him that through the mlf- 
carriage of a pacquct from Bengal they had 
nbt received a copy of the iilflrudions whicli 
iiad been given to Mr. Elliot^ that they 
inight have a thorough knowledge of the 
whole bufinefS) and thereby be prevented 
from adopting meafures counterafting thd 



views of the Supreme Council, he wrote to 
them amply, incloliiig a copy of the inftruc- 
tions, and giving a detail of every matter 
concerning the views in regard to Moodagee, 
and his difpofition toward the Englifli. 

Whilft he was at Bombay he received his 
credentials from the Supreme CounciFs ap- 
pointing him minifter at Poonah, The fe- 
le<3: committee determined to fufpend all ope- 
rations until they fliould receive an anfwer 
from Bengal to their reprefentation of the 
ftate of their affairs, with which they had 
fent Mr. Horfley a member of that council ; 
snd as the fituation of the affairs at Poonah 
were very different from what they appeared 
to be to the Supreme Council, when they^ 
fent the firfl inftructions to him, which was 
on the 5th of February, they having reafon at 
that time to fuppofe Ragobal> had fucceeded^ 
Colonel Goddard deferred making known to 
that Durbar that he had received them, un- 
til he fliould be further inftrufted on that 
hea4. This delay could be productive of no 
real inconvenience, as the period interven* 
ing between the arrival of an aafwer and 
the feafon for adtion would give fufficient 



time to follow and complete any tneafbrei 
that anfwer fhould dived: : and hp prepared 
to join his army at Surat, that he rnight be 
in readinefs for any fervice neceffary. 

During all this time great diflentions had 
prevailed at Poonah ; nothing had been done 
in conlequence of their advantage at Wor* 
gaum and TuUingaum, more than v^hat hath 
been mentioned ; the Vaqueels of Nanah 
and Sindia demanded the execution of what 
was ftipulated in the convention, and the lame 
anfwers were returned ; the want of power 
in thofe who. figned it, the notice the Mah- 
ratta chiefs had of that, and of the inability 
of the Bombay committee to a£t without the 
order of the Supreme Council. The arrival 
of the detachment at Surat had this imme- 
diate good effedt, that a damp was thrown 
thereby upon whatever defigns the Durbar 
might have formed of recovering by arms 
what they infifted was ceded, and ought to 
be delivered to them. It had alfo a very 
material good confequence in regard to the 
invafion defigned by the French. They had 
got a very confiderable force at Mauritius, 
5000 European foldiers, with proportionabld 
llores aiid artillery, and were coUedling ihips 



ko fcratt^drt tbem^ and joiti eirijer Hyder or 
the Poonah miniftiy ; when t^ey heard of* 
the arrival of jth^ detacKment at ^ur^t, they 
ftopped the .emhafkatioo. Thus every thing 
tended to open a ne\v fc^ne of adion, with 
a fair appiSaraoice o£ retrieving pa^jl: errors an4 

As the fituation and th^ difierent liiterefts 
of the princes of Indoftan muft have had a 
^reat influence on the proceedings of i^e Su- 
iprcme Cosancil, and their orders to Colonel 
Go^aird from the tioje he fiyas appoinfed the 
tninifter of that council m thofe parts of la*- 
dii, it will be ufeful and perhaps pot ui>en- 
t^rtalning to take a view of th?iu. 

The firft in diguity is the Mogul J hp 
ought to be fo in importance, but the njjsfor- 
tunes which have attended his whole life, 
have reduced that prince to fo low an ebb, 
that after being at difFeretit periods ibmetime? 
opprefled and at others fupported by parties 
of barbarians who wafted his donjiaions and 
abfolutely ruined his capital, (inforoufh that 
the once fuperb DehU is little bgtter than 
heaps of rubbifli) his principal fujjfifteQce 
avifes from the revenue of a pari of the 

U country 


country of Owde, which had been ceded to 
him on the fettlement with Sujah Dowkh in 
the year 1764. Notwithftanding his fitiiation 
in life Was fuch as required a continual exer- 
tion and an unremitting perfonal attention 
to his affairs, he had abandoned himfelf to 
pleafure and indolence, and was totally 
under the influence of others. His character 
is very fully drawn by Mr. Dow in his 
fccond volume, and the feries of his adven-- 
tures fince that time (hews it to be juft,and 
true. After many various fcenes between 
him, and the perfons who furrounded him> 
NudjufFCawn one of his Omrah8,hath by his 
iuccefles fixed himfelf in the ftate of principal 
minifter, with the powers of a Vizir, though 
the Nabob of Owde bears the title. His ri- 
vals in the Emperor's favour had not only 
failed in their fchemes to difpoffels him, 
but had been aftually delivered into his 
hands, whereby he reriiained fole and un- 
controtikd minifter, difpofingathispleafureof 
every thing relating to the throne of the Mo- 
guls ; he had under his command a confider- 
able army, for whole maintenance the 
many jaghires he had grants of did not fuffice, 
{6 that with, nunibers of men he wanted 
treafore. .Two predatory fmall Mahratta 





Chiefs had tried to enter into negotiation with 
him, to obtain an eftabiifhoient in his fervice; 

' but he hadpq .treaty or intcrcourle with the 
Mahratta ftate; on the contrary, the advan- 
tages vsrhich he and other chiefs in the Mo- 
gul's iervice had taken of the diftrefles of the 
minifters at Poonah, to feize fome of the 
Mahratta forts and territory^ mufl: have made 
him fufpicious of their ill will, and there- 
fore difinclined to their caufe ; befides it was 

. his intereft that the diflentions (hould con- 


tinue^ confequently no ad in their favour 
was to be dreaded from him or the chiefs 
who had pofleffions in thofe parts of Indof- 
tan. The princes whofe friendfhip was moft 
important, or enmity dangerous, from their 
fituation, as well as inclination or power, 
Were Hyder Ally and the Nizam. 

Hyder Ally, though not in declared en- 
mity with the Englifh, was for from having 
favourable difpofitions towards them ; he had, 
from the time his requilition for afliftance 
againft the Mahratta invafion had been 
refufed, harboured a ftrong refentment, 
iand now had entered into negotiations with 
the French, and in feveral inftances (hewn 
a ftrong inclination to their alliance. The 

\) 2 year 

3o8 AN ACCOUN*r 

year befor this, when General Belbombe went 
to Mahe, he ordered his vaffal the prince of 
Chericka, to give him polTeflibn of a fort 
which conunanded the entrance of the river 
Myhic ; he had fent fupplies and even mo- 
ney to Mahe before the Englifli attacked it; 
he had given the governor of that place per- 
mifiion to hoift his colours for his protefiion ; 
and he was preparing to fend a fleet with 
provifions and fupplies to the French iflands, 
where there had been for fome time an ar- 
maiment of five or fix thoulknd men, in* 
tended to fail for the Malabar coaft ; yet he 
was in an aftual ftate of war with Poonah, 
in which he had had luccefs, 'having twice 
overthrown the Mahratta army, and taken 
fome forts and territory. His intereft was 
that their diffentions fliould continue, but it 
was no lefs fo to prevent the increafe of 
power of the Nabob Mahomet Ally whom 
he knew to be his foe, and of the Englifh 
whofe greatnefs deprefled him, and prevented 
his increafe of conqueft : he is by much the 
moft formidable prince in India, having a 
great number of well-difciplined troops, and 
a proportionable well-ferved train of artillery ; 
he entertains many European officers, and of 
late has had a great acceffion to that /orce by 



the number of French who have found means 
to get to him from the French fettiements 
reduced, and other countries fallen into Eng* 
liih pofleflion, particularly the Gbntour Cit- 
car, where Bazalet Jung had five hundred 
French foldiers. The difturbances itt the 
Mahratta empire leffenmg his fears frona 
that quarter, increafed his attention to thefe 
permanent objects of his jealoufy, and his 
army was ready to take advantage of any oc- 
cafion which may qffier itfejf to employ 
it in. 

The Nizam purfued his accuftomed fyfletn 
of policy, whicl^ is to take advantage of the 
troubles in the countries bordering on his 
dominions. : he had already profited by thofe 
in the Mahratta ftate ; the minifters at 
poonah had, to their great lofs, ptifchaled 
the fmall affiftance he had at different times 
afforded them, by ceffions of towns and terri- 
tory, and payrftent of great fums of money; 
he was at this time particularly 'inclined to 
them , not only from the emolument which 
might arife frome{poufing them, but by being 
very much difpleafed with the government of 
Madras : they h^d fufFered the annual rent fti-? 

U 3 pulated: 


pulated to be paid him for the poffeffion of the 
Circars to run in arrear ; and had fent Mr. 
Holland to his court to apologize for this, to 
promifemore punduality ip future payments, 
apd to folicit his fanftlon to a treaty carry- 
ing on with his br||her Bazalet Jung, whp 
held the Gontour Circar during his life, 
after which it was to be the Company's 
abfolute property for a peflion of it. He 
h^d already begun to a£t with fuccefs, 
when he received from them inftruftions of 
very different tendency, whereby he was 
ordered to infjft on a releafe of thofe arrears, 
and a ceflion of this revenue in future : they 
had befides, without waiting for the Nizam's 
anfwer concerning Bazalet Jung, concluded 
their treaty yvith him, whereby for a confi- 
deration agreed on with them he yielded the 
aftual pofleflion of the Gontour Circar to 
them, and they had fent troops to take that 
poffeffion. The council of Madras added 
an odious ftep to this, the Circar was let by 
them to the Nabob ]\Iahomet Ally Cawn. 
The Nizam already difpleafed at this 
treaty, whicli though not openly injurious to 
him, as it regarded only Bazalet Jung and 
|he Englijfli, yet as it increafed their {lability 


OF BOMB AY. 311 

and power, was a diminution of his^ was 
exaiperated at this ftrange requifition, and 
complained bitterly to the Supreme Council 
of the behaviour of the prefidency of Madras 
in this unjuft and ill-timed demand ; by the 
fame letters he inveighed againf): the prefi- 
dency of Bombay, for affifting Ragobah. 
Upon the receipt of thefe complaints at Cal- 
cutta, orders were fent to Mr. Holland to 
acl folely upon his firft inftru£lions, to make 
excufes for that extraordinary ftep, and to 
Ibothe him in regard to the tranfaftion with 
Bazalet Jung, and from thenceforth to look 
on himfelf as the minifter of the Supreme 
Council, and aft by their direftion folely. 
As to the affiftance given to Ragobah, 
they anfwered his complaint by faying, that 
as the minifter at Poonah had made war up- 
on the Englifh, thefe were driven by neceffity 
to have recourfe to every inftrument of de-. 
fence, but that he might be aflured it (hould 
never be employed to his detriment, andl. 
reminded him that in the event of a war 
they were intitled to his affiftance: he 
remained then feemingly quiet at his. 

U4 The 

312 ANA C C O U N T 

The Nabobs of Surat and Cambay, nitu* 
rally averfe to the Poonah government^ by 
which they^ were opprefled, muft fee that the 
dijnirttltloti of its power was likely to free 
thetn from that fevere dependence^ and 
therefore were well inclined to the Engliih, 
and wiflied their fuccefs. 

Fatty Sing GuicaWar, poflfeffed of a great 
pajrt of Guzeratt wiflit^d to increafe thole 
poffei^ns : originally in league with the 
cniqiftets, he bad otxtainoid from them large 
grants of land, which Ragobah when ia 
power had rdvolced and granted to his bro-; 
ther Govind Row ; he had, on the appear- 
ance of profperity tq that c^ufe, in the year 
1775, offered to yield to them apart of 
territory fmC6 claimed by the Poonah Dur- 
bar in virtue of the treaty of Poroutidet; 
nothing bad be^ii yet fettled on that ctaim^ 
he was ready to turn to u?hatever fide tnight 
prove of moft advantage to him j the rnisfor* 
tune at Worgaum kept him from uniting 
xvith the EngiiOi, whil.ft on the other hand 
the iftcreafe of force, hy the arrival of the 
detachment under Colonel Goddard,- pre- 
vented his forming any alliance or entering 
intaengagernents with the minifters. 


OF B O M B A Y^ 313 

The CQAfequence and pqwer, and the in- 
jclinations and fentimetits of Mobdagee Boofla 
Rajah of Berar, fully appear in what hath 
beein already related ; frona the time he be* 
came uneontpovertibly poflefled of the Ra- 
jahihip by the death of his brother, he had 
(Itewn a ftrong defire of alliance with the 
l^ngliihf whorp he looked on as interefted la 
^hc fupport of views, which, although fuC- 
pended by the late events in the Weft of In- 
flia, future circumftances might furnilh op- 
pcHtunities of reviving and carrying into exe« 
cution. The eftablifliment of Ragobah in 
the Pailhwaihip was an obftacle to them, 
and therefore he was averfe to his fuccefs : 
the hatr^ of his caufe had grown into a 
hatr€[d of H? perfon ; on the v^hole it was his 
intereft that there thould be no end to the 
difturbances in the Poonah government ; the 
fettlement of Ragobah, even in the regency,^ 
much more in the Paifliwafhip, was likely 
to bring that government ipto a fettled ftate; 
he was therefore ayerfe to every ftep taken 
in his ^vdur. TJifis,* \yith a dread of 
invafion, or irruption into his territory by 
the Nizam, and the army of the Poonah 
niinifters, inclined him, after the fuccefs of 
pm^h and Sindia at Worgaurai, and before 


314 A'N A C C O U N T 

Colonel Goddard had completed his march 
to Surat, to wi(h the return of the detach- 
ment to Bengal : yet he continued his pro- 
felfions of friendfhip to the ^pinglifli nation. 
Inflances have already been related of his 
affiftance in procuring money when Colonel 
Goddard was diftreffed, and of his hofpitable 
treatment during the ftay of the detgiahment 
in his dominions ; in truth he had a parti- 
cular efteem for fhe Governor General, with 
whom he had been long in correfpondenpe. 
Upon the misfortunp at Worgaum, he hacj 
fenthis Dew^n to Poonah, who affifted at the 
councils held for the regulation ar^d fettlement 
of that government, and he had for this re- 
ceived a grant of the diftrift of Gurrah Mun- 
dele * as a jaghire for one pf hi^ fons, af- 
figned for the paymenf of a body of troops, 
his quota towards carrying on the war. But 
this had no effect, for the minift^rs formed a 
detign to arreft the Dewan, which having 
notice of, he difappointed by an abrupt de-^ 
parture, and they had fent orders to the hror 
ther of Ballage^ to oppofe the conipletion of 
this grant by preventing Moqdagee, who on 

hi Si 


♦ Gurra Maudele in Reynel's map Is on the North of 
th^ Nerbuddah, Lau 143° ^^' Eaft, Long. 8i% 


his part was raifing troops to take pofieflioii 
of it. His averfioii to Ragobah was fome- 
what diminifhed by this perfidy of the mi*- 
iiffters. In April the governor general had 
-written to him, in anfwer to a meflage he 
had fent by Benaram Pundit, the confiden- 
tial perfbn, through whom their mutual cor- 
refpondence had often before been managed^ 
which fhewed that he then thought no force 
could be opppfed to the fupcriority of num- 
bers, and rapid movements of the Mahratta 
cavalry, influenced by which impreflion he 
had apparently given up all thoughts of the 
defigned alliance ; the aim of this letter was 
to preferve the friendfliip and good difpofi- 
tion of that ftate to the Englifli. It ended 
by mentioning that all thoughts of the defign 
which had been formed were relincjuiflied, 
but, that a lafting remembrance (hould be had 
of his kindnefs, and that evefy fuitable re- 
turn fhould be made whenever any future oc- 
cafion of his affairs ihould demand it. Thus 
the Supreme Council, totally difencumbered 
from any engagement with him, were at 
liberty to purfue any plan of aflion which 
ihould feem expedient, and at the fame time 
jhcre fubfifted a mutual benevolence which 



Jeft room for JUiy future negptiation the re- 
yolutiopt of time might furniih an occadou 

That which was moft in favour of the 
^ngllih c^iuie ivag the total expulflon of the 
French from India. The Supreme Council 
of Bengal had fliruck the firft ftroke by pof- 
feffing Chandernagore ; at the fame, time 
fending orders to Madras to- attack Poqdi- 
pherry. This place furrendered after a 
;(lege^ the particulars of which are foreign 
to the prefent purpofe, thi§ was followed 
by th« capturp of Mahe ; they wer^ evea 
|fcmoved fwm Surat, the Bombay Council hay- 
ing given orders for diis when they took the 
refolution of effeftually efpoufing Ragobah. 
^y that ^removal from (he coafts' of Coro- 
mandel, the prefidencies of Fort St. George 
and Bengal were empowered to ad with f^- 
x:urity from that danger^ and by fpirited and 
vigorous meafures to repair the mifchief pjf 
the late mifcarriage, and keep in awe tho^ 
powers who might be diipofed to take ad-*: 
vantage of tliat misfortune. The prefidency 
of Madras faw this, and properly cgncluded 



that proceeding vigomcrBy in the attack of 
Mahe would remove the difadvantagcous im* 
preffions it might have given rife to, wheeeas 
withdrawing their troops mi^^ have beien 
followed by the lofs of Tiilicherry, tind per- 
haps have induced thc^ powers who were 
wavering to declare againft the Engliih, 
and give invitations to the French. Suc- 
cess : proved the wifdom of thefe rcfb- 

However, the armament at the French 
iilands was to be dreaded, there was no doubt 
•of their de(ign upon Bombay, the lofs of 
the Prot^e, joined to the arrival of the de^- 
attachment under Colonel Goddard at Surat^ 
retarded the execution of this defign, and pro- 
bably might have obliged them to alter the 
deftination of the expedition, as by the pre- 
fence of fo conliderable a force, that fettle- 
ment was perfed:ly fecure, but the defign 
fHU continued, and it was not to be fuppoCed 
that it could be given over, efpecially as thi^ir 
correfpondence at Poonah ftill was carried 
on, and they were well acquainted with Na- 
nah's ientiments and Hyder Ally'^ .IctpU- 



Befides the powers already mentionea, 
diere are fevcrai whofe poffeflions lyinfg 
northward partly compofe, and partly in- 
circle the Mahratta dominions; Some of 
them retaining the admiuiftratiofi of their 
own domain, ytt own a dependence on Poo- 
nah ; others are independent : theiirft though 
incapable of a direft refiftance mtsft have the 
defire common to all Zemindars of taking 
the advantage of troubles in the ftate to 
withhold the payment of tfieir rent or tribute j 
this, many of them then did, and whilfl: 
the diftrefles of their matters prevented their 
exertion againft therfi, would continue to do : 
this withholding in the mean tinie was ex- 
.tremely prejudicial to the ftate,^ already 
very much drained of public wealth. 

• % 

But the independent are riiore dangerous 
to the Mahratta empire : many of them have 
aflerted this independence at critical times , 
when diftreffes either by internal commotions 
or external enemies have fo embarraffed. that 
government, that it hath been unable to re- 
' duce them to obedience. They know that 
when' once power is reftored, either by fettle- 
ment of an able man in the Pailhwafliip, or 
by the total fubverfion of all claims againft 


O F B O MB AY- 319 

the mmifters, their independence mufl: be 
annihilated. They fubfift only by the prefent 
diftradlions, and therefore are naturally the 
enemies of that government, and friends to 
thofe with whom they are at war. The 
countries of the moft confiderable of thefe 
princes form a chain from the Jumna to 
Guzcrat ; thefe are the Rajah of Gohid, of 
Jeynagur, of Jowdpoor, of Odeypoor.: the 
firft whofe country approaches the neareft to 
the poffeffions of the Schah, and of the Nabob 
of Owde has the reputation of valour and 
ability ; he has a great number of forts in his 
territory which have flood reiterated attacks ; 
notwithftanding the Mahrattas have made 
frequent attempts to reduce him to fubjec- 
tion, he hatn '^ hitherto had the good fortune^ 
to maintain his independence. Formerly 
Gowalier was the principal fort, and the ca- 
pital of his dominions, but after an uufortu- 
jiate battle fought with them by his father, 
four or five-and- twenty years ago, in which 
he loft his life, this fort was gained by 
the Mahratta general, and hath ever fince 
been in their pofleffion. The prefent Rajah 
was then but nine years old ; he feels the 
importance of this fort, and no doubt muft 



be ready to bnter into any meafure whicSi 
could enable him td regain that pofleffion. 

The Rajah of Jeynagiir is yet a aiindl-, 
and the weaknefs of a minority is increafed 
by contefls and diilentions aniong his ier- 
vants; his territory is very confiderablej 
and may afford an army of 40,000 men ^. 

The Rajah, commonly calleid Ranna of 
Odeypoor, is by defceht the firft in rank of 
all the Indoo families; he is very little 
known, and whether owing to prudence or 
fortune, has been fo happy as to Have no 
concern in the recent occurrences of Indoftan; 
The antient domains of his fap^ily ire now 
poffeffed by the Mahrattas* He can bring 
into the field only about 15,000 men+i 

The moft confiderable from power and exf 
tent of territory is the Rajah of Jowdpoor, his 
dominion extends from the borders of Jeyna- 
gur Eafl: to the frontier of Guzerat, his capi- 
tal is Meerta, a confiderable town ; die 
fortrefs an4 town of Jauloor, or Shaloori 


* Dow, 2d vol. Decline of the Mogul empire, p. 8(Jt 

t Dow, ibidi 

of BOMBAY. 32t 

bh the river Paddar, belong alfo to him ; his 
iferritbry extends to Aymeer on the norths 
and Odeypoor on the fouth* Thefe two 
lafl: Rajahs art nearly connefted by inter- 

Though no immediate connexion with 
^ny of thele powers except the Rajah o£ 
Gohid is probable to be formed, yttj as by 
their fituatidn ih refpedt of the Mahratti 
territory^ and their intereft to have that 
empire humbled and difabled from vindicat-* 
Ing the right they claim to the fupreme 
dominion over them, they may be ufeful to 
taule a diverfion in cafe the war is conti^^ 
h\ied, it i$ riot impoffible that fbme alliance^ 
at ieaft temporary, may be formed witn 
them by thdfe who aft for the Bnglifh na«* 
tion on that iide of India; ^ 

The merit df Colonel Goddard appeared 
in fo high a light, both in his military and 
political linej that the Supreme Council gave 
him a brevet of brigadier general, and con* 
firmed the. powers they had already vefted in 
him for treating and concluding with the 
Aiahratta government, leaving him, in cafe 
they rejedled the terms i^e had -^nftruftions 

X > ta 


322 A N A C C O U N T 

to propofe, full latitude of aftion as he 
(hould think moA advifeable : and as Sindi^, 
by his behaviour whilft the Bombay army 
were at Worgaum, had rights founded on 
intrinfic benefits, they declared that he (hould 
have a full compenfation for any dilappoint- 
ment he (hould fufFer by the denial of the 
d£ts of that committee ; that negotiation tvas 
alfo totally left to him ; as to that with 
Moodagee, if he found it totally at an end, 
it was not to be renewed without the orders 
of the Supreme Council. 

On the 29th of May, Brigadier General 
Goddard announced his commiflion to the 
Poonah Durbar by letters he wrote to the 
Palfhwa and Nanah, mentioning that it was 
the (incere v^ifh of the Supreme Council to 
conclude a lading alliance with that (tate,^ 
and deiiring they would fend a confidential 
perfon to him, to, whom he (hould commu- 
nicate particulars. The difleiitions at Poo- 
nah ran high, Nanah endeavouring to regain 
the fuperioriry he formerly had, and which 
he had flattered himfelf the confinement of 
Morabah and Saccaram would have effeftu- 
ally fecured to him, and Sindia determined 
to preferve his power and keep Nanah in to- 

t> F B 6 M^ At. 523 

tal dependence bn him ; for .this he had re- 
tained the cuftddy of Ragobah's perfbn^ 
notwithftandlng NanSh had made hhn great 
offers to have that pofleffion delivered to him, 
and treated him with the refpedt dile to his 
rank; having pfomifed hlni an Annual fti-^ 
pend of twelve lacks 6f foupees, left hirii a 
train df artillery of twenty piefces of cannon, 
and a confiderable body df troops ; ydt this 
was but ah honourable cdnfinernent, he wa^ 
tvatched with grfeat care. Sehflble that this 
^offeffion was a great advantage againft Na-^ 
riah, and effeftually td (eCure it, Sindia de- 
iigned to keep hinl out df the r6ach of Pod-* 
nah, and for t'hat purpofe propdfed that he 
fliould be conducted td a place of fafety iii 
dne of his own provinces north of the Ner^ 
buddah : this Ragobah agreed td, Whether he 
really thought it moft for his fedurity ot 
hoped the journey might fiirnirti opportu-- 
nities of fortune on be more favouring him* 
Accordingly he fet out towards Branlpodr 
with his own attendants, and his force j 
S^hich confifted of 1500 horfe and foot^ 
with twenty pieces of cannon ; in this jour- 
ney he was efcorted by 4000 hbrfe, under 
the comniand of Hurry Bowagee, Sindia*s 
t)ewan. Diflatisfaflion arofe, the allowance 
■ . ' ^ X a was 


was not regularly paid, nor were the troops 
of Ragobah furniflied with foifage and pro* 
vifions; he heard befides that Sindia had 
taken ofF two of his principal Jemind^rs, 
and detained fome of his peoplp who were 
to be fent after him ; this awaked his fu(pi^ 
cion that confinement was to follow, and 
• prompted him to contrive a plan for an, 
cfcape ; an opportunity foonr offered, as their 
troops crofled the Nerbuddah, his artillery 
inarching down from the Gaut of Nurwah 
to the river, paffed by the Dewan V tont, fomc 
buftle happened, in which the Dewan's peo-. 
pie fired, on which Ragobah's troops attacked 
the guard, totally routed thenfi, killing three 
hundred, and mortally woundiqg the com- 
xnander. Ragobah immediately proceeded 
with what diligence he could towards Surat* 
From the neighbourhood of Broach he wrote 
to General Goddard, deliring his proteftiout 
The General was at firft apprehenfive that 
receiving him might be an obftacle to the 
negociation with Poonah ; but confidering. 
that fuch a protedtion might be recoiKiled to 
that Durbar upon principles of juftice and 
humanity, and that important political ad- 
vantage g might attend the pofleffion of his 
perfon, he granted this alylum and perfonai 



fecurity, recommending it to him to be 
carefuj in preventing any violence from his 
people upon the fubjeds pf the Mahratta 
flate. Wi$ conduit in this was approved by 
the Supreme Council, who direfted him to 
continue this proteftion fo long as it fhould 
be^not forfeited by any aft of infidelity, or 
attempt to defeat theefFeft of his negotiation. 

On the 1 2th of June Ragobah arrived iu 
the Engliih camp, accompanied by his 
adopted fon Amrut Row, about feventeen 
years old, and Badge Row, a child of four 
years old, born to him iince the adoption. 
The Colonel wrote to the Pai(hwa and Na- 
liab acquainting them with this event, adding, 
that they might in their negotiation adjuft 
whatever was proper concerning him.. The 
Poonah minifters were enraged at this efcape, 
and declared to Sindia they muft confider 
him as leiponiible for that lofs. It had at 
firft the efFeft of making them in appearancQ 
more tradable, both Sindia and the minifters 
wiil)ing to conclude a peace that they might 
be at liberty to a£t againft Hyder AU^, who 
Wa* ftiU epcroachiiig on them? 

X 3 The 


The force of the French at the Iflaud 

f " - » • • 

was each day more looked on by the Su^ 
prcme Cpuncil as a matter of very great 
importance ; by advices lately received, they 
had reafon to conclude they were intended 
againft Bombay, and they therefore, in the 
l^eginning of i^uguft, ordered a reinforcement 
to General Goddar^d'sarmy, by a detachment 
from Madras, and as much as could be {pared 
from Mabe, when the works (hould be de- 
moliflied ; they advifed him of this, and 
their reafon for it, recommending particu- 
larly the defence of Bombay, as his firft 

The poonah Durbar had anfvvered Gene- 
Xal Goddard's letter to the Paifhwa, exprelT- 
^ng themfelves in terms of high friendfhip 
towards the tnglifli, and promiled to fend a 
confidential perfon to him ; they had even 
expreffed their farishiftion at the manner in 
which care had been taken that their fubiefls 
11) theGuzerat fbould receiveno damage from 
Ragobali's troops, and recommended the 
Paiihvva's colkdlors to the continuation of 
his prbteiflion. The Vaqueel might have 
arrived towards the end of July, but befides 
tlic (lownefs natural to the political tranfac- 



tions of that Durbar, By which alone if ac- 
quielced in, the time for adlion muft have 
elapfed, the general had reaibii to think that 
the perfbn to be fent was more to aft the 
part of a fpy than of a negotiator ; he had 
undoubted intelligence that Nanah was makr 
ing all poflible preparation for war, and fo- 
Jiciting every power in the neighbourhood 
to join in it againft the Englifh; that he 
bad particularly applied to the Nizam, and 
received anfwers on that fubjeft ; that the 
French agent at Poonah was alfo very bufy 
at this time, and that many difpatches had 
been fent to and received from France. The 
General therefore looked upon war as more 
likely than peace, and precautioned himfelf 
againft every event. What he forefaw hap- 
pened, the negotiation was protradled : he 
had intimated to them that a perfonal inter- 
view between him and the minifters might 
tend to a (peedy fettlement, but this was not 
taken up* 

The Vaqueel did not arrive 111 the gene- 
ral's caijip till the middle of Auguft ; on 
the 1 6th they had a conference; a perfon was 
fent with him, who feemed to have the con- 
duct of bufinels, though the firft perfonated 

X 4 the 


ambaflador. They at firft recurred to the 
flate of affairs between the nations, before 
the circunaftances of |lagobah obliged hiti; 
to apply to the Bombay Council for affift-f 
ance, but the General fixed t]hem to the 
treaty of Porounder, which was to be the 
tafis of any agreement; the others as 
ilrongly infifted on the convention of Wor>f 
gaum, and in confequenpe, the furrender of 
Salfet. The General pn his part mentis 
oncd the want' of power in MeflTrs. Car- 
jiac and Egerton, and the knowledge the 
Mahratta chiefs had of it, aijd told them, 
that unlefs the recjuifitions made by the 
Supreme Cquncil, (which were, the aban^ 
4oning ^11 claims under that convention, 
and excluding the French) were agreed to a^ 
preliminaries, nothing could b|2 entered on. 
No mention was made on either fide of 
any provilion to be rnade for Ragobah ; 
paqch time was taken up in explications of 
the different matters which had pccafioned 
^bc altercations and mutual complaints qf 
fhe Bombay Council and the Mahratta mi- 
nifters againft each other befqre thje Ui\ 
revolutions at Poonah, but in the end 
cacl) f everted to his point. Nothing there- 
fore could be fettled without a further re- 



ference to Poonabt One of the Mahratta 
agents returned there for that purpofe^ 

Before the departure of the Vaqueel for 
Poonah, General Goddard declared to hioi^ 
that the Suprenia Council would never oon- 
fent to the rgftraint of the perfon of Ra- 
gobah, that he muft he at liberty to refidc 
wherever he fliould chufe, with a decent 
allowance frpm the Mahratta ftate, and that 
on thefe conditions he Ihould not be fuffered 
in any manner to difturb it. The return of 
the Vacjueel, which he had promifed (hould 
be in twenty days, was continually delayed, 
notwithftanding repeated aflurances that he 
was imnaediately to leave Poonah ; the 
month of Odober was thus two-thirds fpent 
in vain expedation ; at laft the general told 
(he remaining Vacjueel that the delay ufed, 
and evafive ' anfwers given hitherto, evinced 
hoftile intentions in the Poonah Durbar; 
that notwithftanding thofe evident proofs, 
the Engliih wilhed to fliew their fincere 
inclination for peace, and to grant every 
indulgence confiftent with their honour and 
fafety ; that therefore he would Wait fifteen 
days more, and if at the e){piration of that 
period the abfent Vaqueel did not return, or 


330 A N A C C O U N T 

iend a latisfaftory anfwer to the propofals 
tranfmitted by him, he fhould look upon it 
as a declaration of war, and aft accordingly : 
he might the more boldly do this, as his 
army was in excellent order, complete in 
military ftores, the artillery thoroughly 
repaired, and provided with every requifite 
for taking the field and immediately enter- 
ing upon fervice ; at the fame time he had 
reafon to be aflured that Sindia and Nanah 
had fet a negotiation on foot with the Ni- 
zam, Hyder, and even Moodagee, to make a 
general attack upon the Englifli at their ie- 
veral fettlements. The iaft was not likely to 
ftir, but the others were but too well in-» 
clined to aft againft their^. 

On the 28 th of Oftober the Vaqjueel re- 
turned with letters from the Paifhwa and 
minifter, referring to him for a full decla- 
ration of their fentiments, which he in plain 
terms declared to be, that no peace fhould be 
concluded unlefs, in the firfl: place, Ragobah^s 
perfon was delivered up, and Saliet reflored 
to the Mahratta government. This broke off 
all further negotiation. As the General had 
found Sindia's inclinations fo flrong againft 


OF 3 O M B A Y. 331 

the Englifh, he had not as yet made hirn 
any private overture, left it fhould be attri- 
buted to a confcioufnefs of inferiority, and hm 
receivcjd with contempt ; the cpurfe of ope* 
Rations might afford an occafion which vvould 
render it expedient, for as his connexion witji 

the miiiifter was founded on confideratipns of 

^ . « . ■ » • 

ifjtereft and ambition, a door would open for 
treating whenever he thought it his political 
advantage : this was not likely, whilft his 
iituation at Poonah remained as it then was ; 
his power, by mean$ of his army, and his 
influence oyer Holcar was fo great, that it 
was impbflible for Nanah to fhake off the 
(hackles in which he held himi ; he had been 
prevailed on to returp to poonah, where his 
prefence was bought by further grai^ts of ter- 
ritory or large fyims of mqney : no advan- 
tage could be offered him adequate to thpfe 
he reaped from that importance ; dilatory 
and uncertain proceedings wep therefore his 
objeft. Such a ftate was as pernicious to the 
Engliih as it was profitable to him : to theqi 
every thing concurred to make decifion necef- 
fary. The army under General Goddard was 
maintained at a vaft expence, which the ter- 
ritory in the weft of India was by no means 



' equal to defray ; in truth far othcrwiie : 
the exertions made By the Bombay Council 
had drained their wealth, and they were coi>* 
tinually . requiring fupplies from Bengal : 
great as the relource there was, it could not 
fuflice for every demand, and much had been 
fent to Madras as well as Bombay : an ac- 
tual exifting war gave the Englifh a right to 
|eize the enemy's territory, and draw the 
inaintenance of their army from their reve- 
nues, of which they were then the protec- 
tors. To the expence of the army was added 
that occafioned by the afylum given to Ra- 
gob^h ; . the direction in feveral letters had 
enjoined i^, the Supreme Council approved 
it, humanity required it, and policy made it 
expedient. General Goddard was bound to 
prevent injuries tq the inhabitants, not only 
by prudence, bqt his orders, and the promife 
he had made to the Pooqah Durbar, which 
continued in force till war ihould actually 
exlft. That Ragobah might be enabled tp 
reftrain his troops by paying them, the ge- 
neral had allowed him 50,000 rupees a 
month; this expence was thought toto- heavy, 
and the continuance of it forbidden by the 
Supreme Council ; thus unprovided he muft 


prey at large upon the country, mih& pue 
ia pofiHHon of fbme diftri£b wboifi iieveiiiie^ 
might maintam him, and fuch a pofleiScm 
might be extended to enable him to difchargeii 
fbiBe part c^ the debt he. owed the Company^ 

The rich and fertile province of Guzerat 
Avas the moft obvious country for fuch a 
proviiion, as well as for a rej|[burce, whence 
to draw fubiSflance for the army;, it lay op^n 
and totally inaipabte of refiftatice, no French 
force was yet in that part of India, or could 
anrive before^ the conqueft was efEb£t@d ; the 
approaching ixionibou prevented oppolitioa 
from the M^hrattas, and would give an in^^ 
vader time to efi:abli(h himfelf in that pofief- 
fion, the greateft' part of the country waa 
the property of the Paiihwa family; hencaf 
the benefit arifing from that pofl^on was* 
dbuble^ depriving the enemy of a$ much as* 
it afibi^ed the pofiefibr ; the Nawal of Cam^ 
bay and other Rajahs, inveterate enemies of 
the Mahratta ftate, were ready to affift, if ef* 
feftually proteded ; thus the country would 
be eaiily fubdued, and from its being inter- 
fered by rivers and open to the fea, as eafily 
defended againft the incurfions of a predatory 

eROTay i 

334 ANACCaUNf 

miemj : by a proper ufe of thoie advarttagesV 
Ftttty ^g might be ueee/iitated to joiit the 
Engliihy and thereby free himfelf from de-^ 
pendence^ and (hare the fpoil of his former 
lords ; from him fuccours of notoney and 
troops, principally horfe, might be ob* 

Another very important confideratioii Was 
the retrieving the honour of the Englilh -arms 
loft in the misfortune at Worgaum: this 
was not barely a feather ; from that event 
the Indian powers had (haken oiF the awe 
with whidi the valour and former prowe& 
of that nation had impreffed their mind^ 
*rhis was fo not only at Pooilah» where. the 
Durbar had ufed themfelves to think 'of the 
Englifii with contempt j and conclude diat 
they were fallen into a ftate of weakhefa 
which obliged them to fue for peace, and 
yield tO: give up every thing infifted on, but 
the neighbouring princes whom they Ibli^ 
cited^ influenced in like manner, would pro^ 
bably be the more eafily induced to accede to 
their invitation ; a fortunate blow, the fplen-- 
dor of a viftory muft tur« the fcale ; fear^ 
that principle prevalent through the eaft^ 
would infpire a dread of refentment if the 


OF BOMB AY. 335. 

• • « . » ^ 

Englifh proved fuccefsful, and therefore 
make them await the event of the v^rar* The 
Durbar of Poonah whofc great reliance was 
on an attack to be made by the French force 
fo often promifed, finding none was at hand, 
might refume their fchemes of recovering the 
territory their diflentions made them loft^ 
and defire a peace with the Englifh that they 
might be at liberty to revive their claims 
amt)rig their neighbours. 

Full of thefe confiderations, the general 
proceeded to Bombay to concert with the Se- 
led Committee the plan of operations. ] 

Thus ended the year 1 779, in the weft of, 
India ; it had produced fome great events, 
and been loaded with many difappointments ; 
the next is big with many more, whether 
decifive or jio is in the breafi of providence. 

P O S T7 

§^ A N A tf (i 5 un¥ 


St N C E the concluiion 6( the foregoing 
(hccts^ private advices have been received 
of the folldwing fads* The Bombay Coun- 
cil approved^ though they would not be re- 
fjponfible for the meafures General Goddard 
propofed^ and furniihed him all the af£ilaac» 
that was coniiftent with their (afety ; they 
wrote io Colohel Braithwaite to haften his 
coming with the troops from Mahe, but as 
|lyder had flirted up the princes near TeUi* 
cherry to ads of hoftility, the colonel could 
ilot immediately fpare his whole force ; he 
fent one company of European infantry, onc^ 
of artillery, and one battalliorf of fepoys, but 
they did not arriv'e fo ibon as was expeded : 
from Bombay were fent four companies of 
European infantry, and two battallions of 
fepoys, commanded by Colonel Hdrtlevi 
Thus reinforced, General Goddard, on the 
I ft of January 1780, marched from his 
camp near Surat, and crofling the Tappy^ 
took poffeiSon of all the territory round Su- 
rrt and Broach j and proceede(i into the 

Guzerat : 

OF B O M B A y. 33y 

Guzcrat : part of this country belongs to the 
Gwicawar fatnily and is at prefent poflefled 
by Futty Sing, and the remainder immedi- 
ately to the Poonah government or Paifliwa 
family : this was a proper foundation for a 
treaty with Futty Sing, whofe fit nation in 
xegard to the governing party at Poonah 
hath been alreidy rhentidned; On the 19th, 
the army encamped before the fort of Dub- 
boy, fubjeft to Poonah } the garrifon made 
at. firft a (hew of rcfiftance^ firing Ibme fhot 
bn the approach ; that night a battery was 
fereifked which was intended to begin next 
day ; fbme attempts were made to difturb 
the workj but upon its being finiflied, the 
garrifon abandoned the place^ in which were 
found only a few unarmed inhabitants. The 
revenues of this diftridt amount to two lacks 
of rupees a year; it was left in charge of a 
colledor and fome troops from Broach, and 
the march was continued towards Broderah» 
the rcfidence of Futty Sing, which was held 
by a ftrong garrifon ; General Goddard pro- 
pofed a treaty to him ; fome days he remained 
in fufpence, but his delibepation ended in 
concluding an alliance ; the conditions of 
which were, that the Pailhwa fliould be 
tota% excluded from any poffeffion in Gu- 

Y ^ zerat^ 


'xcrat, and the Englifli and Futty Sing en^ 
^;aged mutually ta fupport each other in the 
pofleilions they fhould ihare between tlieiiu 
'Futty Sing was to furnifh 3000 horfe to 
Oeneral Goddard, and to have Ahmedavad in 
/lieu of his fhare of the Guzerat fouth of the 
Tappy, and he was to be effe£lually fup 
'ported in withholding his tribute of twenty- 
feven lacks till the conclufion of peace, wh^n 
his interefts were to be taken Cafe of. Thifc 
fettled, he accompanied the Engliih iirmy 
with his hbi^fe to Ahmedavad, the capital of 
'Guzerat ; this is a large town Well fortified. 
' On the I oth of Februairy they encamped be- 
' fore it ; it was defended by a great number 
'of troops, part of which were 6000 Arabs, 
and 2000 cavalry ; the batteries were ready 
' the 1 2th at noon, by the i4tb at night feve- 
rai breaches were pradicable, and at day- 
break on the 15 th the Europeans a»d leppy 
* grenadiers, led by the gallant Colonel Hart- 
ley, took it by ftorm after a vigorous refift- 
' ance from the brave Arabs, great number of 
Whom tell ; the lofs of the Engliih- in killed 
and wounded amounted but to one humdred 
and twenty, but that of the enemy to up- 
^ wards of 1000. The town accordiflg t(> 
' ^agijeemeut was^iven up ta P-utty Sing,» and a 
•V - : {iiaali 

OF BOMB AY. 339 

fmill detachment of his and the EtigliHi 
troops left for the guard of itT 

The jealouiies at Poonah had not diicon- 
tinued, Nanah had even projei3:ed to ieize the 
perfbns of Holcar and Sindia, but without 
efFt&i but they were reunited by thQ com- 
mon danger : upon the news of the march of 
the £ngli(h army to AKmedavad being re- 
ceived at Poonah, a confiderable force pro- 
ceeded under Sindia and Eblcar to prevent 
that fiege^ or if begun to force them to raife 
it, but they learned the capture before they 
had got half way ; that flackened their pace, 
yet they continued moving towards the 
Engli(h ; when they reached the environs of 
Broderah, General Goddard marched to meet 
them, they retreated as he advanced ; in 
three days he had got fo near as to occupy ia 
a few hours the camp they had left in the 
morning ; there Sindia and Holcar fent him 
back the hoftages, writing to him, that though 
authoriied by the law of nations to put them 
to death, they would not be guilty of fuch, 
inhumanity ; alking at the fame time whe- 
ther he meant peace or war ? the anfwer 
•was, that the war was only againft Nanah 
^d the enemies of the EngUfl>, ^o which a 

Y 2 reply 


reply was given by their Vaqueel^ that Sin-r 
dia was au enemy to Nanah and well in-, 
clined to the Englifh ; thus a kind of nego- 
tiation was feemingly offered, whilft evidently 
their fcheme was to harrafs and diftrefs the 
Englifli army by hovering round them, and 
not leaving it in their power to come to ap 
engagement to keep them in continual alarm, 
and cut oflF their provifions and forage ; in 
this manner to draw out the campaign till 
the raips ihould put an end to it, when 
they would retire and go tp the cyltiirQ 
pf their farms* 

General Goddard faw the confequences of 
this manoeuvre, and fludied to end it by a 
decifive ftroke : on the 3d of April, about 
two in the morning, he marched filently from 
his camp with a chofen detachment, copfiftT 
ing of four battalions of fepoy grenadiers, 
four companies of European infei^try, four 
twelve- pounders, and eight fix-pounders, and 
after marching aboutfeven miles, at the dawi} 
pf day entered their camp; he was fb provi- 
dent in every precaution that his march was 
totally undifcovered, and regularity and order 
fo well preferved that unperceived he reached 
fhe qenter of their camp, after palling through 

/ a bodjf 



g body of fix thoufand men ; he then began 
bis attack ; great was the confufion among 
fhe enemy, yet they got fome troops toge- 
ther with which they endeavoured to oppofe 
bim, but in vain; they fled fror^ their camp 
into a neighbouring groundji where, without 
lofs of time, he charged them ; after a (hort 
refiftance thaf whole army, confiding of up- 
wards of 30,000 men, dilperfed totally, 
leaving him ilot only mailer of the field, but 
of that vvhple country. The lofs on the 
JPnglilh fide was very inconfiderable, being 
fiqt more than XyfQnty killed and wounded. 

F I N I 9.